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Anatomy H: heart and circulatory System test
Terms in this set (78)
2 upper chambers of heart, smaller than ventricles and thinner/less muscular walls.
Deoxygenated blood, a chamber, pumps blood into right ventricle
Oxygenated blood, blood from pulmonary veins
Right side of heart?
Pumps blood from body (deoxygenated) to lungs
Deoxygenated blood, a chamber, pumps blood into pulmonary artery
Left side of heart?
Pumps blood from lungs (oxygenated)
2 lower chambers of the heart.
Thicker walls than the right ventricle. Pumps all blood through the aorta, oxygenated blood, a chamber.
What happens when left ventricle contracts?
Aortic valve opens and bicuspid closes
What happens when right ventricle contracts?
Pulmonic valve opens and tricuspid closes
The left and right sides of the heart are separated from each other by interatrial and interventricular what?
The wall of each chamber is composed of cardiac muscle tissue called?
Smooth tissue that lines each chamber.
Outer covering of the heart, which is made up of 2 layers called Visceral pericardium and parietal pericardium.
Lies directly against the heart.
Visceral pericardium or epicardium
The outer layer, allows enough room for the heart to beat.
The muscle cells found in the myocardium are called what cells?
Cardiac muscle cells
Vessels taking blood to lungs from the pulmonary trunks, Carries deoxygenated blood
Vessels bring blood from lungs to left atrium, carries oxygenated blood.
Returns deoxygenated blood to the right atrium.
Superior vena cava
Deoxygenated blood, pumps blood from veins to right atrium.
Inferior vena cava
Where is the location of the heart?
Center of thoracic cavity between lungs.
The lower point of the heart and points toward the left. More mass on this side.
Relaxation of the heart.
Contraction of the heart.
When the Atria contracts first, blood is forced into the ?
Once the ventricle is filled, the ventricles contract, forcing blood _____________ of the heart.
What is the direction of blood flow controlled by?
The valves on either side of the ventricles.
Two valves that separate the atria from the ventricles.
Atrioventricular (AV) valves
Which atrioventricular valve is on the right side?
What is the function of the tricuspid valve?
Prevents blood from leaking back into the atrium
Which atrioventricular valve is on the left side?
What is the function of the bicuspid valve?
Prevents blood from backing up into the atrium
What do AV valves do?
Prevent blood flow into the atria when ventricles contract.
Are stringlike structures that attach the AV valves to the wall of the heart.
Located between the ventricles and the large arteries that carry blood away from the heart.
Semilunar valves (SL)
Is located at the beginning of the pulmonary artery, which takes blood to the lungs from the right ventricle.
Pulmonary semilunar valve
Is located at the beginning of the aorta, which takes blood to the rest of the body from the left ventricles.
Aortic semilunar valve
What is a heard sound described as?
What does the "lub" sound of the heart correspond to? It is lower in pitch.
The closure of the artioventricular valves as the ventricles contract.
What does the "dup" sound correspond to?
The closure of the semilunar valves after the ventricles relax.
Veins carry blood back to the heart.
Superior vena cava and inferior vena cava
- Blood enters the right atrium through the superior and inferior vena cava.
- after oxygenated blood enters the right atrium, it is pumped through the tricuspid valve and enters the right ventricle
- when ventricles contract, blood flows through the pulmonary semilunar valve to the pulmonary artery and to the lungs, where oxygen is added and carbon dioxide is lost
- blood rich in oxygen returns to the left atrium of the heart through 4 pulmonary veins
- then passes through the bicuspid valve on the way to the left ventricle and then through the aortic semilunar valve on the way to the aorta
- after passing through through capillaries in myocardium, blood flows into cardiac veins to be returned to right atrium
Largest artery in the body, oxygenated blood, pumps blood from left ventricle to body through arteries
Carry blood away from the heart.
Why do arteries have thicker walls?
To resist greater pressure generated by ventricular contraction
Blood entering the right atrium?
Blood is pumped to the rest of the body. Arteries contain oxygen rich blood white veins contain oxygen poor blood.
Blood flow to and from the lungs. Arteries here contain oxygen poor blood, while veins contain oxygen rich blood.
Describes the supply of oxygen rich blood to the heart and the return of oxygen poor blood from the heart.
Which vessels are responsible for bringing blood to the heart?
Right and left coronary arteries
What happens if this blood flow (coronary circulation) is blocked?
A blood clot will occur, preventing blood from passing through and reaching the heart muscle
Pain that occurs when the heart muscle is deprived of oxygen and often served as a warning sign of a heart attack.
What are treatments for blocked coronary arteries?
Coronary bypass surgery and angioplasty (blood vessel opens a channel for blood flow)
Each complete heartbeat is ?
How long does a cardiac cycle take to complete?
Volume of blood pushed out of the ventricles during each beat.
Volume of blood pumped by one ventricle per minute.
Which structure serves as the pacemaker? Where heartbeat originates from.
Why is it important for heart contractions to occur in a coordinated manner?
To have the most efficient pumping of blood possible
The rate of the heartbeat is controlled by?
Autonomic Nervous System
What are all the muscle cells linked together by?
What are the 4 structures in the wall of the heart that generate strong impulses?
- sinoatrial node
- atrioventricular node
- AV bundle/bundle of his
- purkinje fibers
Electrical system order?
- sinoatrial node sends impulse
- upper chambers contract
- AV sends impulse to ventricles
- lower chambers contract
Electrical signals generated by the heart.
Which waves show up on an EKG and to what do they correspond?
- P wave: depolarization of the atria
- QRS Complex: depolarization of the ventricles
- T wave: repolarization of the ventricles
Arteries subdivide into smaller vessels, becoming _________________, which controls blood flow into capillaries. By constructing and dilating, they help maintain arterial blood pressure at a normal level.
Have walls made of a single layer of cells, so nutrient and gas exchange occurs easily. Cannot be seen by the naked eye because they are so small.
What is the function of capillaries?
Their walls allow nutrients, oxygen, and carbon dioxide to pass to and from cells
Superior and inferior vena cava
When blood exists or is drained from the capillary beds and then enters the small ?
How do veins deal with the problem of moving blood against gravity?
They have a one way valve that helps prevent the back flow of blood.
Which factors affect blood pressure
- blood volume
- strength of contraction
- heart rate
- thickness of the blood
How do the factors affect blood pressure?
The stronger each contraction of the heart is, the higher the stroke volume is and thus the greater the amount of blood being ejected into the arteries.
What is the clinical term for high blood pressure?
Hypertension, they rupture blood vessels
Why is a blood pressure gradient important?
Vital in keeping the blood flowing
When blood pressure gradient exists, blood ?
If blood becomes less thick than normal, the blood pressure?
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