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Periodic Table Of Elements - Intro, Chemical Reactions and Copper Chemistry - 2017/18
Terms in this set (47)
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, it is a unique whole number for that element.
Atomic Mass Unit (AMU)
1 AMU = 1/12 of the mass of a ¹²C atom, all other atomic masses are computed relative to this number
Number of Protons
The number of positively charged subatomic particles inside the nucleus of an atom, which gives the atom its unique identity
Number of Electrons
The number of negatively charged subatomic particles outside the nucleus of an atom, which are responsible for chemical bonding and electrical energy flow
The historical and etymological background of the element's modern name
Type of Element
The main groups of elements are metals, nonmetals, transition metals, lanthanide rare earth metal, actinide rare earth metal, or Noble gas
Electrons associated with an atom that can participate in chemical bonding with other atoms
A group of elements that (generally) shares certain properties. They are Shiny, Conductive, they form Alloys, they are Malleable, they have high Melting points and they are Dense (SCAMMD).
A group of elements. Many are gases; bromine is the only liquid state at room temperature. They are poor conductors of heat and electricity, solids tend to be relatively soft or brittle, they are not malleable nor ductile.
Elements in group 18 which have complete outer electron levels, do not generally react or form compounds with other elements
State of Matter
This classification of matter system divides the distinct forms that matter appears as in the natural world. Most common are observable in everyday life: solid, liquid, gas, Two other types are (Bose-Einstein condensate and Plasma) are not seen in everyday life
An atom that has the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons. They have the same atomic number but different mass numbers.
The weighted average of the masses of the isotopes of an element, as compared to the element C-12, measured in AMU (can be a fractional number)
The total counted number of protons plus neutrons in an atom's nucleus. Must be a whole number.
Number of Neutrons
The number of non-charged subatomic particles in the nucleus. This number can vary in elements of the same type, creating isotopes. To find the number of neutrons in an atom subtract the atomic number from the mass number.
The smallest unit of matter that retains all the properties of an element
Substances that take part in and change in a chemical reaction.
The substances produced by a chemical reaction.
A number placed in front of a chemical formula to indicate how many particles there are. Ex: 2FeO means two particles of FeO and FeO. INDICATES CONSERVATION OF MATTER
Solid - state of matter of the product or reactant in a chemical reaction.
Liquid - state of matter of the product or reactant in a chemical reaction. Ex: H₂O(l) is water in liquid form
Gas - state of matter of the product or reactant in a chemical reaction. Ex: H₂O(g) is water vapor
Aqueous - substance dissolved in water in a chemical reaction. Ex: NaCl(aq) is salt dissolved into the liquid part of the products.
The little number to the lower right of a symbol that indicates how many atoms of that symbol are included in that particle. Ex. H₂O the 2 means that there are two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom bonded together to form a single water molecule. Indicates BONDING
Addition Sign (+)
Mathematical symbol used in a chemical formula to show multiple products and/or reactants
A symbol in a chemical formula that separates the reactants and the products. It points towards the products and away from the reactants. It can be read as "yields" or "reacts to form"
A group of atoms bonded together by *covalent* bonds to form a covalent particle. It is the smallest piece of a covalent substance that retains all the properties of that substance.
A group of atoms bonded together by *ionic* bonds to form an ionic particle. It is the smallest piece of an ionic compound that retains all the properties of that compound.
A chemical reaction where two or more reactants combine chemically to form one new product.
Ex. 2Cu + O₂ → 2CuO
Copper + Oxygen → Copper Oxide
Double Replacement Reaction
A chemical reaction where two reactants break apart to recombine chemically and form two new products. Each reactant is formed from a metal bonded (ionically) with a nonmetal. To form the products the metals switch places. (*Note, in this case H is acting like a metal!)
CuO(s) + 2HCl(aq) → CuCl₂(aq) + H₂O(l)
Copper Oxide + Hydrochloric Acid → Copper Chloride + Water
A rapid reaction between oxygen and a hydrocarbon fuel that produces carbon dioxide, water, and thermal energy.
An example of the base of an unbalanced combustion reaction is:
CxHy + O₂ → CO₂ + H₂O
An organic molecule consisting only of carbon and hydrogen. CxHy
An unchanged group used for comparison with the experimental group(s) in a scientific experiment
A chemical substance that, among other properties, dissolves some metals. HCl, hydrochloric acid, is a common acid used in technology (eg batteries) but is also the main constituent of gastric (stomach!) acid.
A compound formed when an acid and a base react. Note; bases are typically compounds made from metals, such as oxides, and therefore salts are produced when an acid reacts with a metal oxide such as the reaction of hydrochloric acid with copper oxide to form copper chloride salt and water.
A charged particle is an ion. It forms when there is an unequal number of protons and electrons. It may have a positive charge (loss of electrons to have more protons than electrons) or a negative charge (gain of electrons to have more electrons than protons).
A mixture of gases that surrounds a planet or moon.
The electrons available to be lost, gained, or shared during bonding.
A region of an atom in which electrons of the same energy are likely to be found. Typically the "outer energy level" is the energy level that determines bonding characteristics of an atom.
Bond between atoms that forms when valence electrons are shared. A characteristic of nonmetals bonding with nonmetals (ex H₂O and O₂)
Bond between atoms that forms from the transfer of electrons when valence electrons are lost from one atom and gained by another atom creating ions that are attracted to each other. A characteristic of metals bonding with nonmetals (ex NaCl).
Means being made from two (di) atoms (atomic). Many compounds are diatomic such as NaCl (table salt) but two common diatomic molecules found in our atmosphere are nitrogen (N₂) and Oxygen (O₂)
A chemical reaction in which a substance becomes combined chemically with oxygen. Ex. when coal is burned any sulfur in the coal is oxidized to sulfur dioxide.
In chemistry, a (usually) green film formed naturally on copper and bronze by long exposure or artificially (as by acids) and often valued aesthetically for its color. Also used to describe a surface appearance of something grown beautiful especially with age or use; Ex. the beautiful patina of an antique table or well-worn leather
Greenhouse gases trap heat in the atmosphere, which makes the Earth warmer. Some are naturally occurring (water vapor) and others have increased in quantity due to human activity and with the advent of burning fossil fuels in the industrial revolution.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, the increasing use of steam power, the development of machine tools and the rise of the factory system.
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