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29 terms

Sociology Chapter 2 Terms

STUDY
PLAY
language
a system of symbols that can be combined in an infinite number of ways and can represent objects
culture shock
the disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend on their taken for granted assumptions about life
cultural universals
a value, norm, or other cultural trait that is found every group
gestures
the ways in which people use their bodies to communicate
ideal culture
the ideal values and norms of a people, the goals held out for them
real culture
the norms and values that people actually follow
subculture
the values and related behaviors of a group that distinguish its members from a larger culture
counterculture
a groups whose values beliefs and related behaviors place its members in opposition to the broader culture
nonmaterial culture
a groups way of thinking (beliefs, values and other assumptions about the world)
material culture
tangible objects of a culture
ethnocentrism
the use of ones own culture as a yardstick for judging the ways of others
values
the standards by which people define what is desirable or undesirable , good or bad
culture war
when values clash
charles darwin
belief of survival of the fittest
cultural relativism
taken for granted orientations of life
pluralistic society
a society made up of many different groups
value contradictions
values that contradict each other
mores
norms that are strictly enforced
cultural leveling
the process by which cultures become similar to one another
natural selection
survival of the fittest created by charles darwin
positive sanction
a reward or positive reaction
cultural diffusion
the spread of cultural characteristics
negative sanction
an expession of disapproval for breaking norms
folkways
norms that are not strictly enforced
emoticons
substitutes for gestures
taboo
a norm so strong that often brings revulsion if violated
seven basic elements of nonmaterial culture
norms, values, language, beliefs, behaviors, symbols, gestures
technology
tools, skills or procedures necessary to make and to use those tools
american values defined by robin williams
achievements and success
individualism
activity and work
science and technology
progress
efficiency and practicality
material comfort
humanitarianism
freedom
democracy
equality
racism and group superiority
education
religiosity
romantic love