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AP Psychology Ch. 9
So easy if you have taken AP BIO cause it is like 40 % of the terms. A lot of stages from a lot of Stage Theorists probably makes this the hardest to memorize.
Terms in this set (48)
Neo-Freudian, humanistic; 8 psychosocial stages of development: theory shows how people evolve through the life span. Each stage is marked by a psychological crisis that involves confronting "Who am I?"
Developmental psychologist who contends that moral thinking progresses through a series of stages: Preconventional, Conventional, Postconventional, by presenting boys moral dilemmas and studied their responses and reasoning processes in making moral decisions Most Famous is " Heinz"
Stages 1 and 2 of Kohlberg's model of moral reasoning. Children think about moral questions in terms of external authority; acts are wrong because they are punished or right because they are rewarded. "Heinz should not steal the drug because he might get caught and put into prison."
Stages 3 and 4 of Kohlberg's model of moral reasoning. Children see rules as necessary for maintaining social order; how others will view them.
Look at a moral choice through another persons eyes.
"Heinz should steal the drug because he will save his wife and be a hero."
Kohlberg's highest level of moral development, in which moral actions are judged on the basis of personal codes of ethics that are general and abstract and that may not agree with societal norms.
"Heinz should steal the drug because his wife's right to life outweighs the store owner's right to personal property.
Did moral development studies to follow up Kohlberg. She studied girls and women and found that they did not score as high on his six stage scale because they focused more on relationships rather than laws and principles. Different reasoning, not better or worse, also published "The Porcupine and the Moles"
generativity versus stagnation
Erikson's seventh stage of psychosocial development, in which the middle-aged adult develops a concern with establishing, guiding, and influencing the next generation or else experiences stagnation (a sense of inactivity or lifelessness)
integrity versus despair
Erickson's final, eighth stage, where the person asks himself or herself: "After seventy, eighty, or ninety years of life, do I have anything of interest and value to say to the next generation? Or not?"
Nature vs. nurture
the long-standing controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors.
fetal alcohol syndrome= caused by mothers who drink alcohol while being pregnant
Austrian zoologist and ethologist who studied the behavior of birds and emphasized the importance of innate as opposed to learned behaviors
A Psychologist who specialized in higher animal development, contact comfort, attachment; experimented with baby rhesus monkeys and presented them with cloth or wire "mothers;" showed that the monkeys became attached to the cloth mothers because of (contact comfort)
A Psychologist interested mainly in developmental psychology; compared effects of maternal separation, devised patterns of attachment; "The Strange Situation": observation of parent/child attachment. Discovered 3 Types of attachment 1.Secure Attachments(66%), 2.. Avoidant Attachments(21%) 3.Anxious/Ambivalent Attachment (12)
Infants may resist being held by the parents and will explore the novel environment. They do not go to the parents for comfort when they return after and absence (21%)
Attachment style in which infants become extremely upset when their caregiver leaves but reject the caregiver when he or she returns (12%)
Parents who make arbitrary rules, expect unquestioned obedience from their children, punish misbehavior, and value obedience to authority
Four stage theory of cognitive development: 1. sensorimotor, 2. preoperational, 3. concrete operational, and 4. formal operational. He said that the two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth-assimilation and accomodation
According to Jean Piaget , cognitive structures that influence how information from the environment is perceived, stored, and remembered
Interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas.
in the theories of Jean Piaget: the modification of internal representations in order to accommodate a changing knowledge of reality
In Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.
Develop object permanence, babies do not realize that objects continue to exist once out of sensory range.
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic ordo NOT yet understand the concepts of conservation in this stage (that is that objects remain the same even when their shapes change).
Egocentric, children look at the world through only their perspective
concepts of conservation
These concepts demonstrate how the different aspect of objects are conserved even when their arrangement changes. 3 main (volume, area and number)
Concrete Operational Stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events and the concepts of conservation.
Concept of Conservation: objects remain the same even when they change shapes.
Formal Operational Stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts(Like the manipulation of things that you have never actually seen.
Hypothesis testing: abstract reasoning
Don't need physical objects in front of us
Meta cognition: ability to think the way we think
Moral development; presented boys moral dilemmas and studied their responses and reasoning processes in making moral decisions. Most famous moral dilemma is "Heinz" who has an ill wife and cannot afford the medication. Should he steal the medication and why?
The study of how our behaviors and thought change over our entire life.
Cross Sectional Studies
Produces quick results, researchers take from a variety of samples
Takes place over a long period of time with just one test subject.
Chemicals or agents that cause harm to a fetus (ex drugs)
66% of participants
Confident when exploring new environment, are distressed when caregiver leaves.
21% of participants
resist being held by parents
explore novel environment
do not go to caregiver once reunited
12% of participants
extreme stress when parents leave
resist being comforted when reunited with caregiver
Researched parent-child interactions
Three overall categories of parenting
No set guidelines for their children
Can get away with anything
Consistent standards for their children's behavior, but the standards are reasonable and explained
Encourage children's independence but not past the point of breaking rules (MOST BENEFICIAL)
Trust vs Mistrust
Babies needs for fulfillment
Babies learn whether or not they can trust the world to provide for their needs
Autonomy vs shame and doubt
Exert their will over their own bodies for the first time
Examples: potty training, temper tantrums (NO)
Initiative vs guilt
Changes from "NO" to "WHY?"
Curious about surroundings
Initiative in problem solving
Industry vs inferiority
Formal education (Preschool and Kindegarden)
Produce work that is evaluated
Expect to perform as well as our peers
Identity vs Confusion
What social identity we are most comfortable with
Internal self of sense
Confident in identity vs Identity Crisis
Intimacy vs Isolation
Young adults establish stable identities then figure out how to balance efforts between work and relationships
Influence effort spent on self and others in the future
Generativity vs stagnation
Look critically at our life path
Review if our life was lived how we wanted it
Seize control to ensure things go as planned
Integrity vs Despair
We look back at our accomplishments
Decide if we are satisfied or not
If we are we can live without stress and pressure of society
If not we fall into despair
Reciprocal relationship between a caregiver and there child
The fact that objects still exists even after they are hidden
Children only look at their world through their own perspective.
ability to think the way we think
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Find at least five problems in the research study described below. Identify the problem and explain how it is a violation of accepted research principles. Dr. Pauling wanted to study whether vitamin C affects self-esteem. She recruited 200 respondents who arrived at her lab. Participants were told that they were about to participate in a harmless research study, and they needed to sign a release form in case there were harmful side effects from the vitamin C pills. The 100 participants on the right side of the room received a pill with vitamin C and the others on the left received a pill with caffeine. She then gave each group a list of questions to answer in essay form about their self-esteem. When they were finished, she thanked the participants and sent them on their way. After compiling her findings, Dr. Pauling printed the names of the students and their results in the campus newspaper so they would know what the results of the test were. Dr. Pauling concluded that vitamin C had a positive affect on self-esteem.
Which of the following is not one of Robert Sternberg's components of creativity? a. A venturesome personality. b. Imaginative thinking skills. c. A creative environment. d. Incubation. e. Intrinsic motivation.