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Seismic Waves and Earthquakes
Terms in this set (26)
Total force acting on crustal rocks per unit area.
Deformation of materials in response to stress.
Force that tends to shorten or squeeze something, decreasing its volume.
Force that tends to stretch or elongate something.
fails and breaks
When stress exceeds the strength of a material, it...
Rocks nears Earth's surface are generally ________.
Fracture that forms as a result of compression.
Fracture caused by horizontal shear.
Famous California strike-slip fault.
Fracture caused by tension.
Fracture along which movement occurs.
Fault surface along which movement takes place.
Causes rock to move both up and down and from side to side.
Causes rock to move at right angles to the direction in which the wave travels.
A scale that rates earthquakes according to their intensity and how much damage they cause
Squeezes and pulls rock in the same direction as the wave travels.
s & p waves
Can pass through Earth's interior (except s waves can't go through the outer core b/c it's a liquid)
A scale that rates an earthquake's magnitude based on the size of its seismic waves.
Travels only along Earth's surface.
An instrument that records earthquake vibrations.
A paper or computer record of earthquake vibrations.
(t/f) Seismic waves change speed and direction when they encounter different materials.
(t/f) P-waves travel through Earth's mantle.
(t/f) Surface waves are the first to arrive at a seismic facility.
(t/f) Seismologists have reasoned that Earth's outer core must be liquid based on the disappearance of S-waves.
Moment Magnitude Scale
A scale that rates earthquakes by estimating the total energy released by an earthquake
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