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VCE Unit 3 PE Area of Study 1 - How are Movement Skills Improved?
Terms in this set (83)
Measures the path travelled from start to finish, regardless of direction.
The change of position. How far from initial to final position.
Ratio of distance covered to time taken.
Measured in m/s.
Ratio of change in position to time taken.
Measured in m/s.
Ratio of change in velocity to change in time. Measured in m/s2
Projectile Motion - Angle of Release
The angle at which the object is projected into the air. Vertical, horizontal, parabolic trajectory.
Projectile Motion - Speed of Release
The speed at which an object is propelled into the air.
Projectile Motion - Height of Release
Difference between the height that a projectile is released from and the height at which it lands or stops.
Sum of all the angular changes the body undergoes. (measured in degrees)
Difference between initial and final angular position of object. (measured in degrees)
Angular distance covered divided by time taken to complete.
Measured in degrees/second
Rate of change of angular displacement of body over time.
Measured in degrees per second.
Rate of change of angular velocity.
Measured in degrees/second2
An eccentric force that does not act through an object's centre of gravity. Causes rotation.
Greater the torque, greater the angular acceleration.
KINEMATIC CONCEPTS OF HUMAN MOVEMENT
KINETIC CONCEPTS OF HUMAN MOVEMENT
Force = mass x acceleration
Measured in Newtons (N)
Force - Friction
When two surfaces come into contact. Friction opposes the motion of an object.
Force - Drag Force
Either air or water resistance. Opposes the direction of motion of an object, slowing it down.
Force - Gravitational Force
Force that causes objects to fall towards the ground at an acceleration of 9.8m/s2
Force - Weight
Force that is exerted on the body by gravity.
Weight = mass x gravity (measured in N)
Tendency for a body to resist a change in its state of motion.
Angular Moment of Inertia
Tendency to resist changes in its rotary motion.
Measured in kg/m2
The amount of motion an object has and its resistance to changing that motion.
Measured in kg m/s
Conservation of Momentum
Total momentum before collision = total momentum after collision
Summation of Momentum
Co-ordination of all body segments that are involved in movement to generate max velocity.
Larger body parts closer to centre of gravity move first and more slowly, then smaller body parts further away from centre of gravity move second and faster.
The amount of angular motion possessed by a body.
Equal to the change in momentum of an object.
Measured in kg.m/s
Newton's First Law - The Law of Inertia
Body will remain at rest of in the same motion unless acted on by another force.
Newton's Second Law - The Law of Acceleration
The rate of acceleration of a body is proportional to the force applied to it and inversely proportional to the mass of the object.
Newton's Third Law - The Law of Action/Reaction
For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
When an object has no unbalanced forces or torques acting on it.
When the body or object is not moving or rotating.
When the body or object is moving with a constant velocity.
The resistance to the disruption of equilibrium.
The ability to control equilibrium.
Base of Support
The larger the base of support, the greater the stability.
Centre of Gravity (COG)
The central point of an object.
Line of Gravity
Gravity acts on a body through the centre of gravity. The direction is the .....
The greater the mass, the greater the force required to move it and to therefore disrupt the equilibrium.
First Class Levers
Axis is the central component.
Force and resistance applied in same direction.
Second Class Levers
Resistance is the central component.
Force and resistance applied in opposite directions.
Third Class Levers
Force is the central component.
Force and resistance applied in opposite directions.
Mechanical Advantage >1
A greater weight can be moved with less effort.
Force arm greater than resistance arm
Mechanical Advantage <1
A greater force needs to be applied to move the resistance
Resistance arm greater than force arm
Gross Motor Skills
The recruitment of large muscle groups. Eg. Running and swimming
Fine Motor Skills
The recruitment of smaller muscle groups with movements requiring precision eg. Throwing a dart.
Discrete Motor Skills
Have an obvious beginning and end eg. Kicking a ball
Serial Motor Skills
A combination of discrete skills performed in a sequence eg. Gymnastics floor routine
Continuous Motor Skills
Have no definite beginning or end point eg. Running
Closed Motor Skills
Where the performer has the greatest control over the performance environment.
Open Motor Skills
A skill performed in a less predictable environment, where the conditions are constantly changing.
Fundamental Movement Skills
Foundation skills that provide the basis for the development of more sport-specific movement skills.
A special form of skill that require movement of the body or limbs to achieve the goal.
The beginning phase where attention is on movement production and the performance will be inconsistent, with stiff, unrelaxed movements.
The 'practice stage' where the performer begins to refine their technique. More consistent with fewer errors.
The skill is largely automatic where the performer no longer consciously thinks about the skill.
Shorter, but more frequent training sessions with more time allocated to rest between tasks during the session.
Less frequent training sessions that last for a longer period of time. Rest intervals are shorter.
Practicing the same skill continuously without changing to a different task.
Varied sequencing of different motor skills in the same training session.
When performers use their own senses to assess performance (visual, auditory etc.)
Augmented (external) Feedback
Occurs during or after the performance given by an external person.
Occurs during the performance given by an external person.
Knowledge of results
Specific feedback about the outcome of the task.
Knowledge of performance
Specific feedback on the characteristics of performing a task.
Qualitative Movement Analysis
A process used to improve human movement. Includes 4 steps: preparation, observation, evaluation and error correction.
QMD - Preparation
Where an observation strategy is developed including the purpose of the analysis.
QMD - Observations
When the observation takes place using technology.
QMD - Evaluation
Where the judgement on the movement takes place.
QMD - Error Correction
Based on data observed, feedback provided to correct errors.
The test measures that it is intended to measure.
The ability of the test to reproduce similar results when conducted multiple times.
The degree of agreement among different raters (observers)
The consistency of rating given by one assessor (observer)
A rigid coaching approach where coaches provide feedback on every practice attempt and athletes has a limited opportunity to make any decisions.
Understanding the interaction between the individual, environment and task, and manipulating these to improve the athlete's skill outcomes.
Body size, fitness level, mental skills, perceptual and decision-making skills, technical skills
Physical environment (locality, noise level, weather conditions, terrain etc.)
Social/cultural environment (cultural norms, family support networks, peer groups, societal expectations)
Rules of the sport, equipment, playing area dimensions, player numbers, instructions
Customs, lifestyles and values that characterise a society or group. They affect our thoughts, feelings and behaviours. Important to understand as these can affect skill development.
Education, politics, religion, values, attitudes, race, climate, housing, geographic location.
Family structure, role and status in society, time, access to equipment/coaches, personality, active role models
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