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Arts and Humanities
History of the Environment
Environmental Science Midterm
Terms in this set (92)
highly developed countries
Countries with complex industrialized bases, low population growth, and high per capita incomes. represent 20% of the world's population
Example: U.S., Canada, Japan, and most of Europe
less developed countries
Countries with low level of industrialization, very high fertility rate, high infant mortality rate, and a low per capita income. represent 80% of the world's population. Agriculturally based
Examples: Bangladesh, Mali, Ethiopia
Natural resource that cannot be replaced once depleted by use
Examples: coal, gold, and oil`
Natural resources that nature can replace if used sustainably
Examples: freshwater, air, and wood
Human use of materials and energy. We consume more than 50% of the world's resources
When the demand on a countries resource damages the resource enough to reduce the quality of life for future generations. Caused by overpopulation and/or overconsumption
The average amount of land, water, and ocean required to provide that person with all the resources they consume
When a population consumes more land, water, and ocean than the earth can sustainably provide for that long-term carrying capacity
4 factors that affect environmental impact. Gives an estimate of human impact on the environment
what does IPAT stand for?
I= environmental impact
P= number of people
A= affluence per person (ability to get a greater amount of a resource b/c of wealth)
T= environmental effect of technologies
to be maintained at a certain rate or level, avoidance of depletion
tragedy of the commons
Solving environmental problems is a result of struggle between short term, and societal welfare, and long term environmental stability. Thinking about what do we want vs. what society will need in the long term
ex: Easter Islands
Economic development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising future generations
Should take into consideration:
Environmentally sound decisions
Economically viable decisions
Socially equitable decisions
An interdisciplinary study of human relationship with other organisms and the earth
A set of components that interact and function as a whole
Global earth systems: climate, atmosphere, land, coastal zones, ocean
A natural system consisting of a community of organisms and its physical environment
good. Change triggers a response that counteracts the changed condition and throws the dynamic equilibrium off
bad. Changes triggers a response that intensifies the changing condition
factors that influence a process or experiment
the variable is not altered, allows for comparison between the altered variable test and the unaltered test
Using the results of a scientific investigation, we can analyze the potential effect of doing nothing or intervening - what is expected to happen if a particular force of action is followed, including any adverse effects the action might generate. In other words, the risk of one or more remediation options are considered.
what makes earth well suited for life?
it has land, water, soil and all of the natural resources that it provides and replenishes.
what does the human population growth graph look like? what type of growth does it display?
in US dollars, what is considered "poverty"?
$2 a day
how many people live in extreme poverty?
1 in 4 people
what causes unsustainable consumption?
Overpopulation and overconsumption
how does the ecological footprint compare among India, France, and the U.S.?
the US uses the most out of all of these
why is the current human population's ecological footprint considered an ecological overshoot?
we are using resources faster than they can be produced
what 2 things do we need to understand when we think about environmental sustainability? on what levels do we need to think about environmental sustainability?
The effects of our answers on the earth and that earth's resources are not infinite.
What is the tragedy of the commons and who wrote it? What did he use as an analogy? What are some modern-day examples?
Garret Hardin (1915-2003) wrote the Tragedy of the Commons. He used medieval Europe as an analogy
Modern day examples: bluefin tuna overharvesting, deforestation of the amazon, air pollution
What is sustainable development?
an economic development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising future generations.
What are 3 components to sustainable developments?
Economically valuable decisions
Making decisions that is fair for everyone.
what are the global Earth systems?
Climate, atmosphere, land, coastal zones, ocean.
What are the steps of the scientific methods?
observation/ ask a question
Make a hypothesis
Design an experiment/ do a study
Analyze data/ draw conclusions
Share your conclusions/peer review
List and describe the 5 steps in addressing environmental problems.
Public education and involvement
Long term evaluation
There was cyanobacteria (blue-green algae)
The algae grew too much
No trees, big statue heads, no one knows how they were able to move them
widespread environmental destruction, natural resources seemed to be inexhaustible
general revision act
1891, gave the president the authority to establish forest reserves
values natural resources for their usefulness to humans
wants to protect nature because all life deserve respect
allows the president to set aside sites of historical or scientific importance for preservation
Hetch hetchy dam
John Muir and the Sierra Club fought against this construction, which was intended to supply water to the city of San Francisco
American dust bowl
refers to the severe droughts in the Great Plains during the 1930s, basis for soil conservation service
Soil conservation service
was created by Franklin Roosevelt in response to the American Dust Bowl
Earth day 1970
Gaylord Nelson was responsible for starting this, it brought awareness to the population growth and pollution, over 20 million people showed up
Environmental protection agency (EPA)
National environmental policy act (NEPA)
requires the federal government to consider the environmental impact of proposed actions, must develop environmental impact statements
Environmental impact statements (EIS)
assesses a country's commitment to environmental and resource management
the right of every citizen to have adequate protection from environmental hazards (lower income neighborhoods, etc.)
field of ethics that considers the moral basis of environmental responsibility
human superiority and dominance over nature
Deep ecology worldview
all species have an equal worth to humans
study of how people use limited resources to satisfy unlimited wants
Optimum amount of pollution
cost to society of having less pollution is offset by benefits to society of activity creating pollution
has no known value
Command and control solutions
requires companies to put money into green technology
environmental taxes and tradable permits, putting a tax on pollution
Environmental taxes (green taxes)
identify and replicate societal cost of pollution
rely on identifying optimal level of pollution
Civilian conservation corps
Franklin Roosevelt started this, over 175,000 people were given jobs
Bayview hunters point
had 700 hazardous waste facilities and 2 superfund sites
an area that has been designated to be cleaned up because it is oer polluted
wrote essays about environments
tax hunting weapons to protect wildlife
Population Bomb, a book about population control
Silent Spring, use of DDT (pesticides)
founded Sierra Club and fought for national parks
What characterized the first two centuries of environmental history in the US?
What role do naturalists play in the environmental history of the US?
Who were some important naturalists in the US?
Wallace Stegner, Aldo Leopold, Paul Ehrlich, Rachel Carson, Franklin Roosevelt, John Muir, etc.
What did Roosevelt and other presidents accomplish under the General Revision Act?
They established 51 federal bird reserves, 5 national parks, 18 national monuments, 150 national forest, and 4 game reserves
Why didn't the general division act continue?
Congress didn't like the presidents having this much power... so they took it away
Who was Gifford Pinchot?
The first head of the US Forest Service, he and roosevelt were utilitarian conservationists
How would you characterize the viewpoint of John Muir on the environment?
value natural resources for their usefulness
protect nature because all life deserves respect
What was the first national park to be established by Congress?
What is an example of land set aside for preservation under the Antiquities Act?
What happened to Hetch Hetchy Valley?
It was flooded on purpose
What did Roosevelt do that was important for the environment?
He established many national parks and forest, he protected the land
Explain why the national environmental policy act is the cornerstone of environmental law.
How do environmental impact statements provide powerful protection for the environment?
What does an environmental economist do?
Explain what it means to have an optimum amount of pollution.
Acid rain, health problems, etc.
What is environmental justice and what are some examples of it?
Lower income neighborhoods and minority neighborhoods living near landfills, hazardous waste facilities, etc.
western world view
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