EDPS 457 Midterm
Terms in this set (61)
content integration: use examples and content from different cultures.
knowledge construction: helping students understand perceptions and biases within a discipline which then effects how that knowledge is constructed.
equity pedagogy: Modify teaching so that you can facilitate to a diverse group of students.
Prejudice reduction: focuses on characteristics of a student's racial attitudes and how they can be modified by teaching.
empowering school culture: different components of schooling must be examined to create a school culture that empowers all students.
includes your overall beliefs about your worth
includes your beliefs about your personal attributes, strengths, and weaknesses.
beliefs about your capability to perform or achieve a certain goal.
mental organization of info and how you make sense of the world.
when the knowledge at hand fits your schema.
integrating new info into you existing schema
adjusting your schema to fit the new knowledge
when the knowledge at hand conflicts with your schema.
Piaget's stages of development
sensory motor (0-2): dependent on senses
Preoperational (2-7): senses and symbols
concrete operational (7-11): mental and concrete. Logical thinking about concrete objects.
- classification: realize amount involves more than size.
- seriation: ability to order objects on the basis of increasing or decreasing length volume or width.
Formal Operational (11+): logic and reasoning.
- hypothetic deductive reasoning
- operations on operations
- reality is a subset of possiblities.
Zone of Proximal Development
- Level at which children are able to solve porblems under guidance or collaboration.
- level between anxiety and boredom.
scaffolding: working with someone on a task that you can not do alone. The person easing off of helping.
Guided participation: someone is helping the student achieve the task.
Marcias stages of identity formation
Identity achievement: explored realistic options, made choices, committed to persuing the choices.
Identity diffusion: disorganized examination of choices, failure to make clear choices.
Identity Foreclosure: Following the steps of others, without examining other options.
Moratorium: pause and remain on hold as far as decisions on identity.
response starts to diminish and disappear
too much reinforecment decreases occurence of desired behavior.
new stimulus is similar to the original and produces a similar response
the reappearance of a response that had been gone.
focused on improvement and understanding
focus on competence, ability achieving end result.
performance avoidance goal
goal to avoid looking bad.
focus on a goal to enhance ones social life.
survival: basic needs of food, water, and warmth
safety: protection from war, violence, and crime.
Belonging: need to receive affection and attention
Self-esteem: need to feel your own self-worth
Intellectual achievement: (growth) know and understand ourselves.
Aesthetic Appreciation: (growth) know and understand ourselves.
Self-actualization: (growth) realization of one's potential.
how people explain success or failure.
- locus of control: internal or external
- Stability: stabel or unstable
- Controllability: controllable or uncontrollable.
Holds all stimuli encountered and provides time to act.
- Visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, gustatory
Holds info for further processing, focuses attention, organizes info, and controls complex voluntary tasks.
- 7 +/- bits of info
Long Term memory
- storage for all learned info.
- what, how, when and why
Ability to perform a task without taking up selective attention "auto"
Grouping info into meaningful units
Working memory is exhausted and learning cant occur
Remembering something with no attached meaning.
Making connections between new and prior knowledge.
Copy of new info is saved into long-term memory
new info is elaborated/organized and saved into long-term memory.
Well defined problem
Good structure and enough info to solve.
ill- defined problem
more than one solution, and multiple solution strategies.
look for info that confirms thoughts
falsely reporting predictions once an event occurs
not considering probabilities and past experiences and becoming over optimistic.
holding onto a belief despite contradictory evidence.
Metacognition: knowledge of cognition
stored in long-term memory
control of cognition
Guidlines for teaching new concepts
- activate students schemas
- present examples and non-examples
- help students identify defining and nondefining characteristics
- Teach the name of the concept
- Give the students a good definition
- visual aids
- have students make analogies between new concept and other known concepts.
Concept attainment models
- non examples
Self-efficacy and outcome expectancy
Self-efficacy: belief about ones capability to perform or achieve a certain goal.
outcome expectancy: belief about one's capability to perform or achieve a certain goal.
Inhibitory effects (modeling)
- strengthens the same behaviro in observer
weakens the same behavior in the observer
response facilitation effects
when an individual knows about a behavior but the action serves as a "cue"
Skills learned through modeling
Types of learning
focuses on observing others and seeing their consequences.
- enactive learning is opposite and consequences of own actions.
finding a solution to a problem or an explanation for a phenomenon rather than memorizing rules and explanations
when teachers present a question or problem and students formulate hypothesis and then test that result and reflect on the original question as well as their thought process.
small group work
- inquiry based learning
- discovery learning
- guided discovery (same as discovery but hints are provided)
- positive interdepedence: establish mutual goals and rewards.
- individual accountability: have individual assessments
- Face to face interaction: members actively support and encourage others
- social skills: basically make sure nobody is being an ass.
- group processing: Make the students reflect on their answers and how the group worked together.
Reciprocal causation model
interrelationships between students environment, personal beliefs and behavior.
- Personal component: beliefs and attitudes that affect learning
- behavior component: response made in situation
- environmental component: how this effects your surroundings.
Knowledge: students will be able to remember relevant factual info
comprehension: students will be able to understand new info
application: students will apply new knowledge
analysis: students will be able to combine different pieces of info to create new understandings.
Evaluation: students will be able to make recommendations based on internal and external criteria.
Intrinsic Vs Extrinsic motivation
intrinsic motivation: motivation to be involved in learning for their own sake.
extrinsic: being involved in an activity as a means to an end.
flow: motivational state in which students is extremely focused and ignoring all outside factors.
Working memory: essay
The second memory system of the information processing model where the information processes and held to be processed.
- 15-30s, 7+- peices of information
- moved to sensory only after cognitive processes of attention and preception
- info held in long-term memory can be retrieved and stored in working memory for further processing.
Three components of working memory:
- Visuospatial sketchpad: holds visual and spatial info for further processing
- the phonological loop: holds words and sounds
- central executive: focuses attention, organizes new info, integrating new with previous knowledge, controlling complex voluntary tasks, and controlling inappropriate thoughts and actions.
- an individuals cognition about his or hers cognition or knowing about knowing.
Knowledge about cognition: stored in our long-term memory.
- what works well for you when studying.
Control of cognition: how you apply knowledge about your cognition to regulate your learning.
- applying knowlege of good study habits to your own studying.
- How much time to spend on a task
- what strategies to use
- what resources to gather
- checking progress
- change strategies if needed
- judging the process of learning
- judging the outcome of learning.
refers to economic, educational, and occupational characteristics.