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SCOM 388 Midterm Exam ( ch 1,2,3,5,9)
Terms in this set (98)
What does measurement determine?
how precise we will be in exploring what we have observed
and it also determines what analytical tools ( statistics) are appropriate for the type of measurement we need
How is public relations measurement different than other research measurements?
Public relations measurement tends to be softer. we sometimes measure things that cannot be seen such as attitudes, beliefs or values
Measurement that puts observations into classes. These measurements can be difficult to interpret. This also includes percentage. Categories are EXCLUSIVE, you cannot be in more than one cateogry at a time
assumes that the distance between classes is on a continuum. These observations are more difficult to make but easier to explain
includes sex, race, and size. There is no distinction as to which is better than the other.
places observations into some type of order:
ages 18-25 or under $200.00. There can sometimes be an assumed order
assumes that distances between observations are EQUAL, all along the continuum.
This level of measurement adds the zero point on the continuum.
Are the measurements we take dependent on what is being observed?
NO, what is important is deciding how we will define the data
Validity ( there are 4 types)
refers to whether a measure is actually measuring what we defined it to measure. It is closely related to definition
A. Face Validity
Occurs when you operationally define the measurement as measuring what you say it measures. This level of validity is accepted on the credibility of the researcher
B. Content Validity
When you ask others (experts) to review your measures. In doing this the experts provide a second level of validity based on AUTHORITY and CREDIBILITY.
C. Construct Validity
is obtained through an analysis of how measurement is actually used
D. Criterion-Related validity
established when your measure is shown to be related to another established measures, or if it successfully predicts behavior--> found through pretesting your measure againt known measures.
the ability to measure the same thing comparably over time. This type of measure is stable and does not fluctuate without reason. It takes a look at the error found in measurement
* Almost always reported as a statistical coefficient
split-half reliability/ internal consistency reliability
randomly takes a measure and has some participants take one portion and others take a different portion of the measure and compare the results between groups
is when you have the same question or statement twice, both answered correctly, then you have evidence of the measure's internal reliability or consistency.
Both methods (qualitative & quantitative) provide data that leads to a better understanding of the problems under study
We are not interested in one person, rather in groups of people. Thus we lose the ability to understand in great detail how something occurred.
Data collection: controlled, objective, systematic observation
Data assessment: can be measured reliably, validity can be measured, and deductive reasoning is used
Outcomes: description, understanding, control, follows prescribed rules
gives us the opportunity to look in great detail how something occurred. We cannot use this data to generalize to a larger group
Data collection: uncontrolled, subjective, random observations.
Data assessment: cannot be measured reliably, validity is assumed, and inductive reasoning is used.
Outcomes: description & understanding
Three types of campaign research
Affective: the influences of messages
Informative: evaluations of effectiveness of the transmittal and reception of messages
Behavioral: intended action on those messages on the target audience
What is data?
the observations we make about the world around us
is observing people, events, or objects of interest as they occur, typically through qualitative methods
systematic gathering, analyzing, and evaluating of data via some methodology. It can be qualitative or quantitative
which seeks to provide the underlying framework for the study of public relations
textbook analogy: artitect--> specifies what materials will be used, what structures will look like etc.
which seeks to use theory-driven research in business world situations
development of public relations campaign or program that uses particular theoretical elements ( messages, communication channels)
is used to provide assessments of how well the program or campaign has worked and how well the individual components of that campaign are working during the campaign
Questions of Definition
defines what it is that we are attempting to observe. It can be the dictionary definition or a created definition. It assesses the existence of an "attitude"
Formal requires an objective definition
informal requires a meaning at a given time
Questions of fact
Seek to compare across or between groups. These questions are answered quantitatively or empirically, and deal with quantity. They can be verified by observation. Public Relations uses it when they ask whether a particular strategy has produced a change in the public's viewpoint.
Questions of fact can be tested in the lab. The researcher analyzes the benchmark data to determine success. Surveys may be conducted to see if the message changed attitudes
Questions of Value
can be answered with either methodology. Answering these questions quantitatively required the researcher to rely on only attitude measures, thus reducing the understanding to an empirical benchmark
Questions of Value are best answered qualitatively, because they provide "richness" needed to truly understand why respondents felt the way that they did
Theoretical researchers treat Questions of Value as they do Questions of fact
Theoretical approach vs. Applied approach
both address the same problem with different approaches. One sets up the underlying rationale and the other sees if it can be applied to what is often labeled the "real" world
Theoretical: deals with opinions & attitudes
Applied: takes the given research to the next step further by directly observing behavior
Best practices in Public Relations
1. Be clear, and have well-defined research objectives
2. Rigorous research design
3. stress quality & substance of research findings-> demonstrate effectiveness, and link outputs (tactics) to outcomes
4. Develop better communication programs
5. Demonstrate effectiveness
What is Public Relations?
conducts research about an organization and its publics
establishes mutually beneficial relationships through communication
It demonstrates how the organization can meet the entity'd business goals, ROI, and ROE
What is ROE and ROI
ROE: return on expectations ( common in PR)
ROI: return on investment
Who are internal publics?
Who are intervening publics? Give an example
those that intervene between an organization and its external publics
Example: the Media
What do public relations professionals look at when researching credibility issues?
They look at: non-financial indicators such as-
reputation, fairness, power, believability, competence, and openness
Management of Research in Public Relations
Outcome--> Credibility, Relationship, reputation, and trust-->confidence--> ROE/ ROI
identified through shared self-interest
How can publics be identified?
role in decision-making process
4 basic Public Relations Assumptions
1. Decision-making process is similar at most organizations
2. All communication research should: set objective, determine strategy, implement tactics
3. Three phases of research:
A. Developmental research: develop the program/campaign
B. program refinement
C. program evaluation
4. Knowledge based & behavior-driven
What is the most common research plan used in PR?
M.B.O.--> management by objective
1. state the problem
2. State the objectives
3. Create the campaign or program
4 Evaluate and provide feedback
create a body of knowledge about an issue or client/ organization that detects and explores a potential concern
It provides the information necessary to begin to state the problem
will tell us specifically how to attain that goal and solve the problem
objectives that are measurable by observing behavior
specify what audiences should know during and after the campaign
provides an overall direction to an overcoming problem
What should the first objective be?
focus on what and how the publics should know about the campaign's content
In many instances, knowledge is not sufficient to move people to action
Motivation is an attitudinal phenomenon, predisposition to behave
Informational: salience of an issue, like or dislike, understanding or ignorance, cognitive or connotative
1. continuous efforts are required to achieve a stable, predictable process
2. Businesses processes have characteristics that can be measured, controlled & evaluated.
3. Quality improvement requires commitment from the entire organization
Benefit of using the 6 sigma: it fits the PR worldview of stakeholders
Research strategy characteristics
1. It has been pretested
2. takes into account the relationships b/w tactical strategies and program outcomes
3. Continually monitors progress toward the goal with a focus on in-campaign tactical corrections and inputting data
ability to have predefined values associated with the scale items. Very old measure, that takes a long time to complete. This scale has very high reliability and validity
also known as summated rating scales, are composed of a series of item statements that are reacted to on a continuum of predesigned responses ( usually 5 point scale)
"agree" "strongly disagree"
What are the basic assumptions of the Likert-scale?
1. the scale responses are interval in nature ( can be controversial)
2. the ends of the continuum being measured are bipolar
3. there is NEUTRAL point
There must be at least two items to "sum" And there must be an odd number of items
The reliability is constructed through coefficient alpha
validity is partially obtained by creating the measure itself, with the researcher's content validity
The factor analysis examines how different items "load" together on the measure
Similiar to Likert scale except there are no predesigned responses to react to. Instead participants react by placing a mark on the continuum bound by two bipolar adjectives or phrases
- a way of measuring attitudes and beliefs
semantic space: that has three attitude dimensions:evaluation, potency, and activity
Evaluation: cognitive, knowledge-baed component of attitude change and persuasion
potency deals with our affective responses to an attitude object ( like/ dislike)
Activity: deals with behavioral dimension ( how we behave toward it)
How is validity determined in a Semantic Differential Scale?
researcher judgement and construct validity is achieved by factor analysis
What is the most common misuses in field application for Likert Scales?
1. The use of an even number of responses. The neutral point is often left out,
2. the data is no longer interval but ordinal, and averages are inappropriate
simply describes how the data gathered are distributed within the sample or census observed
type of hypothesis that states the difference/relationship will occur but does not have a specific direction
another word used for independent variable used in communication research
also known as the criterion or outcome variable, it is the variable being affected
determines the reliability when the value is 0.7+
hypothesis with no relationship between variables, the relationship is simply a coincidence
a variable that can be measured and predict behavior
another word for dependent variable used in descriptive research
type of hypothesis that is precise and indicates the nature and direction of the relationship between variables
Can you measure behavior through a survey?
no, but you can measure behavioral intention
What is included in background research?
internal factors such as: the client, the product or service,
external: the environment, industry and market shares
the mental process whereby unclear notions (concept) are made more specific and precise
a term that expresses an abstract idea formed by generalizing from particulars and summarizing related observations. It is also derived from the mutual agreement from mental images
What are the major codes points in research?
1. All participants must agree to actively participate in the research
2. The participant must be allowed to withdraw from the study at any time without penalty
3. Participants must understand what they are volunteering for
4. The actual research done must not harm the individual, psychologically or physically
Research question: 1 concept
If you are measuring 1 concept: there is no dependent or independent variable. No relationship between variables
Research question: 2 concepts
IV & DV
"controlled group discussion" to gather information about the opinions through direct communications. A group of people are asked about their attitude/opinion/perceptions toward a product, service, concept, advertisement, idea or packaging. Everything that is said in the group is transcribed
Focus groups use inductive reasoning: because the researcher observes the participants, identifies a pattern to lead to a deeper understanding of the situation.
Order of Research
secondary research--> qualitative research--> quantitative research
-gather preliminary information
-help develop questionnaire items for other methods
-Better understand why people communicate or react to communication in a controlled setting
What are some problems that can occur with a focus group?
People do not always show up. If the focus group requires multiple meetings, you need to recruit well so the participants continue to show upGe
Focus Group: Generalization problems
You cannot make business decisions based on 5 to 10 people's opinions.
Advantages and Disadvantages of focus group
- fairly quick and inexpensive
-Members can tag off other's responses
-potential over-reliance on the moderator
- heavy time commitment
-volunteer participants can be problematic-does not allow a specific sample
- one or two people can dominate the focus group dialogue
Conducting a Focus group
1. choose type of focus group: traditional, known, or virtual
2. select and train your staff
3. create discussion guide
4. recruit and select participants
5. set up the room
6. Conduct and record sessions
7. transcribe and analyze the data
Traditional focus group
participants are brought together based on parameters defined by a particular problem, opportunity or situation. This type is usually formed either through random selection from a larger population (public) or through a call for volunteers
Known focus group
this type of group is used when researching in an organization where you want someone from each level-the lowest to the highest to participate.
a known focus group could be conducted by beginning with the initial stage data responded to electronically
Advantages of Focus Group
all levels of the organization are represented
the participants are selected for a particular reason
Disadvantage of Focus Group
participants are interacting with people who may be their superiors, the participants tend to keep their attitudes and opinions to themselves out of fear of retaliation. To overcome this, participants can answer anonymously. by writing responses
How many groups should you have for example, from James Madison University?
you need at least three groups because just two can have the exact opposite opinions. So for JMU, you can have a group of students, professors, and administration
Group discussion: What do you think?
How should you prepare a room for a focus group?
comfortable but not too comfortable. Minimal distractions. Participants need room to spread out, and refreshments should be provided
Who is primarily responsible for conducting the focus group?
What two problems do moderators encounter in focus groups?
2 the moderator must know how to handle the overactive participant-that dominates the conversation
three phases of focus group data analysis
1. moderator and researcher get together and discuss what the moderator felt was the outcome
2. the tapes are played and transcribed if necessary
3. discussions are systematically analyzed
Are focus groups enough alone for research?
no, they should be used in conjunction with other methods
What are the two limitations of focus groups?
1. You cannot generalize the data
2. The success of the focus group is dependent on the skills of the moderator
Why are focus groups used more than in-depth interviews?
focus groups are cheaper
What is the advantage of participant observation?
it provides you with an understanding of how people behave in their day-to-day activities. It provides you with an understanding of how people perceive their organizational roles, rules, and routines when approached systematically-meaning the observer is not just observing but looking at the interactions or environments with an expectation of how communication should be occurring. It provides clues as to when problems will arise and often suggests intervention strategies
What is the disadvantage of participant observation?
the amount of time and associated costs it takes to complete an actual participant observation study
What does a participant observation study require?
1. You understand the expected rules, roles, and routines for your environment
2. you participate in the daily activities of those you are observing and take notes
3. you then compare the observations notes to those expected
What does the participant observation process provide?
true environmental scanning data
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