TuHS Dogs Decoded: Inheritance and Evolution

an organism that has two different alleles for a trait
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heterozygous
an organism that has two different alleles for a trait (hybrid)
Punnett Square
a chart that shows all of the possible combinations of alleles that can result in a genetic cross
Genotype
an organisms genetic makeup, or alleles combination
homozygous
an organism that has two identical alleles for a trait (purebread)
phenotype
an organisms physical appearance
heredity
the passing of traits from parent to offspring
genetics
scientific study of heredity
genes
factors that control traits
alleles
controls the inheritance of traits
dominant allele
trait that always shows up when the organism is present
recessive allele
trait that is covered up when the organism is present
traits
specific characteristic of an individual.
behavioral isolation
a form of reproductive isolation in which two populations develop differences in courtship rituals and other behaviors that prevent them from breeding
geographic isolation
a form of reproductive isolation in which two populations are separated by geographic barriers, such as river, mountains or bodies of water. This leads to the formation of two separate subspecies
temporal isolation
a form of reproductive isolation in which two or more species reproduces at different
Selective Breeding
the breeding of organisms for desired characteristics
Homologous
Structural similarities present as a result of common ancestry. The common structure has been adapted to different purposes.
Vestigial
Anatomical features that have been retained through a species' evolution, but has lost their ancestral function. The persistence of these structures provide evidence for common ancestry.
Analogous
Structural similarities that serve a common purpose. Shows evolution produced similar structures given similar environmental pressures. Is NOT common ancestry.
Evolution
Heritable change in a population's gene pool over time.
Disruptive Selection
What pattern of selection does this show
Directional Selection
What pattern of selection does this show
Stabilizing Selection
What pattern of selection does this show
Overproduction of Offspring
One condition for Natural Selection to occur. More individuals present than can be supported by environment
Variation of Traits
One condition for Natural Selection to occur. Genetic variation between individuals in population
Extinction
Short time period (in terms of geological time), large environmental change. Once a species is gone, it is gone forever.
Adaptations
Formed through natural selection over time, help individuals of a species to survive in their environment.
Behavioral Adaptation
Hunting/living in packs, raising young, howling for communication are all types of this kind of adaptation in wolves.
Inheritance of genes
One condition for Natural Selection to occur. Favorable traits are inherited and passed to offspring.
Environmental Selection
One condition for Natural Selection to occur. Higher fitness of some trait forms over others
incomplete dominance
A pattern of inheritance in which two alleles, inherited from the parents, are neither dominant nor recessive. The resulting offspring have a phenotype that is a blending of the parental traits.
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