58 terms

Oral Com chapters 7-12

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Terms in this set (...)

Attention Grabbers
Activity
Reality
Proximity
Familiarity
Novelty
Suspense
Conflict
Humor
The Vital
Activity
Choose active verbs
Select dynamic stories
Use short segments
Reality
Use tangible objects
Paint a clear picture
Refer to specific events, people, and places
Proximity
Helps you command attention to make direct reference to person in the audience, nearby object or place, recent incident, or immediate occasion
Familiarity
References to the familiar are attention-getting, especially in the face of new or strange ideas
The familiar is comfortable and reassuring
Novelty
Novel happenings, dramatic incidents, or unusual developments attract attention
Blending the familiar and the novel, the old and the new, often yields the best results
Suspense
Unusual twists to hold the audience spellbound
Includes puzzling relationships and unusual forces
Conflict
Controversy grabs attention
Conflict suggests uncertainty
The concept of struggle brings a sense of urgency
Humor
can unite you and your audience
It relaxes people and provides a change of pace
It can be used to make a controversial point of view, or a difficult subject more palatable
Vital
We tend to be concerned with things that immediately benefit us
Includes matters that affect our health, reputation, property, or employment
Beginning your speech
Referring to the subject or occasion
Using a personal reference or greeting
Making a startling statement
Asking a question
Using a quotation
Telling a humorous story
Using an illustration
How long? 15-30 secs
Ending your speech
Summarize Major Points or Ideas
Issue a challenge
Use a Quotation
Use an Illustration
State Personal Intention
How long? 15-30 secs
Language Levels
referential refers to things we recognize
Relational suggests associations with people
Accurate Language
Careful word choice is essential to effectively communicate what you mean
Concrete and specific
Shines OR glitters, gleams, glistens, sparkles
Words are symbols that represent objects/ideas
Listeners may attach different meaning than you intend
Simple language
Don't speak down, speak directly
Learn vs. ascertain, use vs. utilize, help vs. facilitate
Say it again
Repetition of words, phrases, and ideas to clarify and reinforce
Don't just repeat but rephrase to advance understanding/acceptance
Dictionary
Use the right type (medical, law, webber)
Stipulative
How word used in certain context
Negative
How you're not going to use a word
Contextual
How a word is used in a specific situation
Analogical
Compares unknown process with a known one
Etymological
Derivation of a word
Exemplar
familiar example
Visual
size, shape, color, movement
Auditory
music, stillness
Gustatory
salty, sour, sweet
Olfactory
sausage, diesel, grass
Tactile
slimy, sticky, misty
Kinesthetic
muscle cramp, suffocation
Organic
inner feelings like hunger, dizziness, nausea
Be Strategic - Metaphor
Describes a subject by asserting it is the same as another otherwise unrelated object
Does not use "like" or "as"
Doublespeak
biased language, scare tactic, racy, obscene, questionable lanuguage
Extemporaneous Method
Prepared in advance
Presented from abbreviated notes
Is most important
Two Steps:
Plan and prepare detailed outline and speaking note cards
Practice speech aloud, using own words to communicate ideas
Impromptu method
delivers on spur of the moment with little preparation, focus on single idea
Manuscript method
written out beforehand and read from manuscript, used when extremely careful wording required
memorized method
written out and then committed to memory, more effective when written out to be informal and conversatinal
effective speaking intelligibility
adjust volume, pronuncuate, control rate, enunciate clearly
effective speaking variety
vary rate, change pitch, use stress effectively, (emphasis, pauses)
Dimensions of nonverbal
discloses emotional state, enriches the message, forms a reciprocal interaction between speaker and listener
proxemics (Nonverbal)
use of space by human beings,
use of physical space is influenced by (nonverbal)
formality of occasion, nature of material, personal preference
Movement (nonverbal)
physical shifts from place to place, relative relaxation or rigidity and vertical postion of body
Facial expression (non verbal)
Affect displays are facial signals of emotion
Provide listeners cues to help them interpret message
Your face helps you establish bond with the listeners
Conventional gestures (non verbal)
physical movements are symbols with specific meanings assigned by custom or convention
Descriptive gestures (non verbal)
physical movements that describe the idea to be communicated
Indicators (non verbal)
movements of the hands, arms, or other parts of the body that express feelings
Using Nonverbals
Signal relationship with audience through proxemics, adapt physical setting to communicative needs, adapt gestures and movement to size of audience, establish eye contact with audience, use body to communicate feelings, regulate pace of presentation with bodily movement
Oral Report:
arranges and interprets information gathered in response to a request made by a group
Explanations
define concepts or processes in ways that make them relevant to listeners
Lectures
involves more extended explanations and definitions; increases audience's understanding of particular field of knowledge or activity
Motivational Appeal
either visualization of desire and method for satisfying it or assertion that entity, idea, or course of action holds key to fulfilling particular motive need
Motive need
impulse to satisfy a psychological-social want or a biological urge (lack of food, lack of companionship)
Common motivational appeal
affiliation, achievement, power
Affiliation:
desire to belong, be accepted
Achievement:
intrinsic/extrinsic desire for success, adventure, creativity, enjoyment, prestige
Power:
desire to exert influence, control, social responsibility
Monroe's motivated sequence
hook, problem, cause, solution, conclusion