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59 terms

Discovering Computers Ch. 9

STUDY
PLAY
computer communications describes
a process in which two or more computers or devices transfer data, instructions, and information
all types of computers and mobile devices serve as
sending and receiving devices in a communications system
collaborate
to work online iwth other users connected to a server
document management system
provides for storage and management of a company's documents
groupware
software the helps people work on projects or share information over a network
web services
describe standardized software that enable programmers to create applications that communicate with other remote computers
network
a collection of computers and devices connected together via communications devices and transmission media
advantages of using a network include
facilitating communications, sharing hardware, sharing data and information, sharing software, and transferring fudns
client/server network
one or more computers acts as a server while the other computers on the network are clients
server
aka host computer, controls access to network resources and provides a centralized storage area
clients
rely on the server for resources
peer-to-peer network
simple network that typically connects fewer than 10 computers, called a peer, that have equal responsibilitiies and capabilities
P2P
Internet peer-to-peer network onwhich users access each other's hand dissk directly and exchange files over the Internet
network standard
defines guidelines that specitfy the way computers access a medium, the types(s) of medium, the speeds on different types of networks, and the type of physical cable or wireless technology used
network communications standards include
Ethernet, token ring, TCP/IP, 802.11 (Wi-Fi), Bluetooth, UWB, IrDA, RFID, WiMAX, and WAP
Ethernet
specifies that no central computer or device on the network should control when data can be transmitted; that is, it allows nodes to contend for access to the network
token ring
requires devices to share or pass a special signal, called a token
TCP/IP
aka Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, divides data into packets
802.11
a series of standards for wireless devices
Bluetooth
uses short-range radio waves to transmit data
UWB
aka ultra-wideband, specifies how two USB devices use short-range radio waves to communicate at high speeds
IrDA
transmits data wirelessly via infrared light waves
RFID
uses radio signals for communications
WiMAX
aka 802.16, is a newer network standard developed by IEEE that specifies how wireless devices communicate over the air in a wide area
WAP
aka Wireless Application Protocol, allow wireless mobile devices to access the Internet
purpose of communications software is
it helps users establish a connection to another computer of newtwork, manages the transmission of data, instructions, and information, and provides an interface for users to communicate with one another
dial-up line
temporary connection that uses one or more analog telephone lines for communication
dedicated line
always-on connecton established between two communications devices
dedicated lines include
ISDN lines, DSL, FTTP, T-carries lines, and ATM
ISDN
a set of standards for digital transmission of data over standard copper telephone lines
DSL
transmits at fast speeds on existing standard copper telephone wiring
FTTP
aka Fiber to the Premises, used fiber-optic cable to provide extremely high-speed Internet access to a user's physical permanent location. Two types: FTTH (home) and FTTB (building)
T-carrier line
a long-distance digital telephone line that carries multiple signals over a single communications line
ATM
aka Asynchronous Transfer Mode, a service that carries voice data, video, and multimedia at extremely high speeds
communications device
hardware capable of trasmitting data between a sending device and a receiving device
modem
converts a computer's digital signals to analog signals for transmission over standard telephone lines
ISDN modem
transmits digital data to and from and ISDN line
DSL modem
transmits digital data to and from a DSL line
cable modem
aka broadband modem, a digital modem that sends and receives digital data over the cable television network
wireless modem
uses the cell phone network to connect to the Internet wirelessly from mobile computers and devices
network card is
an adapter card, PC Card, ExpressCard module, USB network adapter, or flash card that enables a computer of device that does ot have built-in networking capability to access a network
wireless access point
allows computers and devices to transfer data wirelessly
router
connects multiple computers or other routers together and transmits data to its correct destination to the network
home network
connects multiple computers and devices in a home
Ethernet network
connects each computer to a hub with a physical cable
home powerline cable network
uses the same lines that bring electricity into the house
phoneline network
uses existing telephone lines in a home
most home networks use
a Wi-Fi network, which sends signals through the air at distances up to 1,500 feet in some configurations
transmission media
consists of materials or substances capable of carrying one or more signals
physical transmission media
use tangible materials to send communications signals
twisted-pair cable
consists of one or more twisted-pair wiires bundled together
coaxial cable
consists of a single copper wire surrounded by at least three layers: an insulating material, a woven or braided metal, and a plastic outer coating
fiber-optic cable
consists of thin strands of glass or plastic that use light to transmit signals
wireless transmission media
send communications signals throught the air or space
infrared
aka IR, sends signals using infrared light waves
broadcast radio
distributes radio signals through the air over long and short distances
cellular radio
a form of broadcast radiot that is used widely for mobile communications
microwaves
radio waves that provide a high-speed signal transmission
communications satellite
a space station that receives microwave signals from and earth-based station, amplifies the signals, and broadcasts the signals back over a wide area