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VET 246 Radiology (Ch 1-4)
Terms in this set (59)
What is an x-ray?
form of electromagnetic energy similar to visible light but of a short wavelength
Radiant energy travels in waveform along a straight path and is measured by _________
Short wavelength = (high/low) frequency
Long wavelength = (high/low) frequency
Electromagnetic radiation = __________ and _______
particles and waves
Cycles of waves per second
wavelength and frequency of an x-ray depend on _______ used to produce the radiation
(true/false) The atom always strives to achieve homeostasis, or balance, with the negative charges balancing the positive charges
_______ are tightly bound to the nucleus, while _______ are loosely bound
When electrons travel, they create _________
Occurs when two electrical fields act upon each other without actually touching each other
What is the standard measurement of quantity of electrons flowing past at a certain point in time
Adjusting mA on the x-ray generator console will regulate the number of _________ used to produce an x-ray photon
Increasing mA will (darken/lighten) the image and (increase/decrease) density
Decreasing mA will (darken/lighten) the image and (increase/decrease) density
What is the measurement of potential difference (causes electrons to travel from one point to another)
Radiolgy uses _________ and _______
miliamperes(mA) and kiloVolts(kV)
Adjusting the kV will regulate the ______ or ________ behind the x-ray photon
energy or power
Increasing the kV will (darken/lighten) the film and eliminate contrast
Decreasing the kV will (darken/lighten) the film and eliminate contrast
What are the 3 components of the X-ray machine?
1. control panel (generator)
2. Collimation controls
3. X-ray tube
What are the 3 main components of the X-ray tube?
1. Cathode and filament
2. Anode and rotator
3. Focal spot/target
What two types of anodes are there?
rotating vs stationary
The ________ creates the electrons and repels them because it is ________ charged
The _______ attracts the electrons because it is _______ charged
The anode consumes the electrons to complete the circuit and produces _________ as a by product
The "focal spot" concentrates and directs the x-rays to the _________
The anode is composed of _______
What is the Line Focus Principle?
The anode is angled in order to direct the x-ray beam downward, if you change the angle, you change the width/focus of the beam
Most anodes are angled at ____%
When the anode is hit with electrons, it gets very ________
Normally, anode heat is dissipated in less than __________
What is a "heat bloom"?
With exposures occurring in rapid succession, the focal spot dissipates heat to the surrounding anode
- causes the image to lose sharpness, reducing resolution
Only ____% of the energy created by the anode is in the form of x-rays and _______% is in the form of heat
What is the Anode Heel Effect?
The anode angle directs more x-rays toward the cathode side of the beam and so the thicker part of the patient should be at the cathode end
The main concern of x-ray radiation is _______ effects such as cancer, cataracts, hyperthyroidism...
What is the primary culprit of radiation that affects the healthcare worker
What is scatter radiation?
When x-rays go through a patient, they interact with the cells and produce a photon, which are emitted from the patient and go in all directions
What is it called when a cell develops a mutation, and then every cell that divides from it also has the same mutation
(true/false) higher energy levels penetrate deeper and lower energy levels penetrate only superficially (kVp)
Linear Energy Transfer (LET)
the ability to transfer energy
X-rays have ______ LET's with higher penetrability
Scatter radiation has _____ LET's with lower penetrability
What is the ALARA Principle? What does it stand for?
"as low as reasonably achievable"
- radiation doses should be as low as possible
What are the 3 cardinal rules of radiation protection?
time, distance, ad shielding
What PPE is worn while taking x-rays?
- leaded apron
- leaded gloves
- leaded thyroid protectors
- leaded glass goggles
Dosimeter badges measure what?
exposure to radiation
What are the 3 components of the film-based image receptor?
film, intensifying screens, and cassette
Single emulsion film has one ___________ layer that prevents light from bouncing back on the emulsion (shadow effect)
With single emulsion film, the antihalation layer is the _______ side, while the emulsion layer is the _______ side
What film is used in general radiography?
double emulsion film
Double emulsion film is _____ on both sides
What three components in the emulsion are photosensitive and are collectively called "silver halide"?
silver bromide, silver iodide, and silver chloride
An image that is formed on the film but is invisible until processed
What is an image called after it has been processed?
Blue receiving film is physically _______
Green receiving film is physically _______
How do intensifying screens convert radiation to visible light?
phosphor in the screen emulsion converts the x-rays to light
The first phosphors used were __________ __________ which produced blue light
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