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Electronegativity
Electronegativity is a measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons. The Pauling scale is the most commonly used. Fluorine (the most electronegative element) is assigned a value of 4.0, and values range down to caesium and francium which are the least electronegative at 0.7.
Non-polar bond
Nonpolar covalent bonds are a type of chemical bond where two atoms share a pair of electrons with each other. Polar covalent bonding is a type of chemical bond where a pair of electrons is unequally shared between two atoms.
Polar covalent bond
Nonpolar covalent bonds are a type of chemical bond where two atoms share a pair of electrons with each other. Polar covalent bonding is a type of chemical bond where a pair of electrons is unequally shared between two atoms.
Ionic bond
A chemical bond formed between two ions with opposite charges. Ionic bonds form when one atom gives up one or more electrons to another atom. These bonds can form between a pair of atoms or between molecules and are the type of bond found in salts.
showing bond polarity
Bond Polarity. Bond polarity depends on the electronegative differences between the two atoms which form bond. ... If the two atoms have equal electronegativity, then the atoms share the bonding electrons with equal ease. The bond between the atoms is non-polar covalent type.
Polar molecules
Contemporary definitions for polar molecule. noun. an asymmetric molecule with non-uniform positive and negative charges; also called dipole. A polar molecule has a partial positive charge in one part of the molecule and complementary negative charge in another part.
Non polar molecules
non-polar molecule A molecule in which the electrons are shared equally between the nuclei. As a result, the distribution of charge is even and the force of attraction between different molecules is small. Non-polar molecules show little reactivity. "non-polar molecule."
Intermolecular forces
Intermolecular force. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to: navigation, search. Inter-molecular forces (IMF) are the forces which mediate interaction between molecules, including forces of attraction or repulsion which act between molecules and other types of neighboring particles, e.g., atoms or ions.
Van Der Waals forces
weak, short-range electrostatic attractive forces between uncharged molecules, arising from the interaction of permanent or transient electric dipole moments.
Dispersion forces
The London dispersion force is the weakest intermolecular force. The London dispersion force is a temporary attractive force that results when the electrons in two adjacent atoms occupy positions that make the atoms form temporary dipoles. This force is sometimes called an induced dipole-induced dipole attraction.
Dipole interactions
Dipole-Dipole interactions result when two dipolar molecules interact with each other through space. When this occurs, the partially negative portion of one of the polar molecules is attracted to the partially positive portion of the second polar molecule.
Hydrogen bonds
a weak bond between two molecules resulting from an electrostatic attraction between a proton in one molecule and an electronegative atom in the other.
Properties of water
Cohesion, otherwise known as water's attraction to other water molecules, is one of the major properties of water. Water's polarity lends it to be attracted to other water molecules. The hydrogen bonds in water hold other water molecules together. Due to water's cohesiveness: Liquid water has surface tension.
Surface tension
the tension of the surface film of a liquid caused by the attraction of the particles in the surface layer by the bulk of the liquid, which tends to minimize surface area.
Expands when frozen
The Expansion of Water Upon Freezing. The fact that water expands upon freezing causes icebergs to float. The fact that water reaches a maximum density at about 4°C causes bodies of water to freeze on the top first.