The first humans to make a showing in the Americas.
The way that the first people may have arrived in the Americas. It connected Siberia and Alaska around 40,000 years ago.
Sioux (Pawnee, Pueblo, Iroquois)
Large North American Native American tribes.
Mayas, Incas, Aztecs
The three Native American cultures that built large cities in Central or South America.
European rebirth of classical learning and outburst of artistic and scientific activity in the late 1400s/early 1500s.
Major changes in this occurred during the Renaissance.
Adopted from the Arabs, who adopted it from the Chinese, this item allowed navigation to become much more precise.
Invention of this aided the spread of knowledge across Europe.
Country that funded Columbus' voyages. One of the first two countries to lay claim to lands in the Americas.
Driven out of Spain by Isabella and Ferdinand in 1492.
Ferdinand and Isabella
Catholic monarchs of Spain during Columbus' voyages.
Series of revolts against the authority of the Pope in northern Europe.
Major incentive for exploration.
Country the the west of Spain; ruled by Henry the Navigator. One of the first two countries to lay claim to lands in the Americas.
Henry the Navigator
Portuguese monarch who sponsored many exploratory voyages.
A country in which the majority of people share a common culture and common loyalties toward a central government.
Discovered lands across the Atlantic Ocean (the Americas).
The Americas, as referred to by the Europeans until someone came up with a better name.
Explored the east coast of South America; the person that America gets its name from.
papal line of demarcation
Determined which lands the Spanish had a claim to and which lands the Portuguese had a claim to. Draw straight down a map of the world by the Pope.
Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)
Treaty that moved the papal line of demarcation a few degrees to the west.
Pedro Alvares Cabral
His explorations established Portugal's claim to Brazil.
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
Crossed the isthmus of Panama and discovered the Pacific Ocean.
Juan Ponce de Leon
Discovered Florida while searching for the mythical fountain of youth.
One of his ships was the first to ever circumnavigate the globe.
Conquered the Aztec Empire.
Conquered the Inca Empire.
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
Explored a vast swath of North America from present-day New Mexico to Kansas.
Hernando de Soto
Explored from Florida westward to the Mississippi.
Conquerors of the New World.
System that took slaves to the New World to work for the Spanish. Required that a tax be paid to the Spanish ruler for each slave brought over.
Explored the coast of Newfoundland for England. Gave grounds to the earliest English claims to the New World.
Giovanni de Verrazano
Searched for a northwest passage to the Pacific for the French.
Explored the St. Lawrence River for the French.
Samuel de Champlain
Established the first permanent French settlement (Quebec) in the New World. Regarded as the "Father of New France."
Father Jacques Marquette
Explored the upper Mississippi River with Louis Jolliet.
Robert de la Salle
Explored the Mississippi basin, which he named Louisiana.
Explored the Hudson River for the Dutch.
English method of pooling the resources of people of moderate means in order to support potentially profitable trading ventures.
Father Junipero Serra
Founded the mission chain in Alta California.
Joint-stock company that established the first permanent English colony (Jamestown) in the Americas.
The first permanent English colony in the Americas.
Captain John Smith
Forcefully led the people of Jamestown away from starvation.
Established Jamestown's tobacco industry.
John Rolfe's American Indian wife.
A colony under the direct control of a monarch.
Wanted to "purify" the Anglican Church of Catholic influences. Frequently persecuted in England.
Colony established by the Pilgrims.
Puritans with ambitions of creating a completely new Christian church outside of the Anglican Church, rather than reforming the Anglican Church.
Separatists who set sail for America.
The boat that the Pilgrims sailed upon.
Document that pledged the Pilgrims to make decisions by the will of the majority.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Colony founded by non-Separatist Puritans.
Led about a thousand Puritans to found Boston and several other towns.
When some 15,000 settlers ran to the Massachusetts Bay Colony to escape the English Civil War.
Virginia House of Burgesses
The first representative assembly in America.
Colonies operated by joint-stock companies.
Colonies under the direct rule of a monarch.
Colonies under the authority of individuals granted charters of ownership by the king.
Colonial Virginia and Maryland.
George Calvert (Lord Baltimore)
Was given control over Maryland by the English king. Was Catholic.
Cecil Calvert ( Lord Baltimore)
The son of the first Lord Baltimore. Attempted to further his dead father's plans.
Act of Toleration (1649)
The first colonial statute granting religious freedom to all Christians. Called for the death of anyone who denied the divinity of Jesus.
The first of England's colonies.
Sir William Berkeley
Royal governor of Virginia from 1641-1652 and 1660-1677.
Someone who came to America by agreeing to work for nothing but room and board for four to seven years.
System under which Virginia offered 50 acres of land to anyone who paid for an immigrant's passage to America.
Practice that started in the mid-1600s in Virginia.
A Puritan, exiled from the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Founded Providence.
Poor gentleman farmer who rebelled against Berkeley's government. Led an army of poor white man-virgins from the hills. Died of dysentery.
Colony founded by Roger Williams.
Dissident who was banished from Massachusetts Bay Colony. Founded Portsmouth.
The idea that faith alone (not good deeds) is necessary for salvation.
Created through the joining of Providence and Portsmouth. Offered religious freedom for all.
Led a large group of disgruntled Boston Puritans into the Connecticut River Valley to found Hartford.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1639)
The first written constitution in American history.
Founded New Haven.
Colony formed by the joining of New Haven and Hartford.
Last colony to be founded in New England.
Allowed zeal-lacking second-generation Puritans to take part in church activities without making a formal declaration of their total belief in Christ.
New England Confederation
Military alliance between the New England colonies. Created because of frequent attacks by Indians, the Dutch, and the French, and because England was in the throes of a civil war and wasn't going to send aid. Lasted until 1684.
Indian tribe led by Metacom (aka King Philip).
Metacom, aka King Philip
Chief of the Wampanoags.
King Philip's War
Vicious Indian vs. New England Confederation conflict. Thousands dead, Indian resistance in New England virtually gone by the end of it.
Colonies founded during the period of English history known as the Restoration.
Granted to eight nobles by Charles II as a reward for helping him gain the English throne.
Plantations commonly found in mid-18th-century South Carolina. Worked by African slaves.
Frequently found in North Carolina. A lack of good transportation prevented these from growing into large plantations.
Taken from the Dutch (who called it New Amsterdam) by the Duke of York.
Divided from New York by King James in 1664. The piece of land between the Hudson River and Delaware Bay.
Last Dutch governor of New Amsterdam.
"Paid" to William Penn by the crown in 1681 to repay a large debt owed him.
Pacifist Christians with highly radical beliefs.
Young convert to the Quaker faith. Founded Pennsylvania.
William Penn's plan to make Pennsylvania a place where persecuted peoples and liberal ideas could thrive.
Frame of Government (1682-1683)
Guaranteed Pennsylvanians a representative assembly elected by landowners.
Charter of Liberties (1701)
Guaranteed Pennsylvanians freedom of worship and unrestricted immigration.
Created when William Penn granted the three lower counties of Pennsylvania their own assembly.
The last colony to be chartered. Was created to provide a buffer against Spanish Florida and to serve as a penal colony.
First governor of Georgia. Led the founding of Savannah.
Economic policy that looked upon trade, colonies, and the accumulation of wealth as the basis for a country's military and political strength.
English-implemented laws stating that 1.Trade to and from the colonies could only be carried by English or colonial crews on English or colonial ships. 2.All goods imported into the colonies, except for some perishables, could pass only through ports in England. 3.Specific (or "enumerated") goods from the colonies could only be exported to England.
Dominion of New England
The result of King James' combining of various New England colonies into a single unit.
Sir Edmund Andros
Governor of the Dominion of New England.
Succeeded in deposing James and replacing him with William and Mary.
Trade between the British colonies, West Africa, and the West Indies.
Increased massively as the colonies shifted towards more labor-intensive crops and grew in size.
The route African-bearing ships took to get to the West Indies from West Africa.
Salem Witchcraft Trials (1692)
Almost 20 hanged by accused of practicing witchcraft in Salem, Massachusetts. Ended by the governor when his wife was accused of witchcraft.
A practice created in England where the first born son receives all land from father.
Puritan Church Members
These free white men were allowed to vote in the Massachusetts Bay Colony for representative positions yearly for the colony's governor, his assistants, and a representative assembly.