The way that the first people may have arrived in the Americas. It connected Siberia and Alaska around 40,000 years ago.
Mayas, Incas, Aztecs
The three Native American cultures that built large cities in Central or South America.
European rebirth of classical learning and outburst of artistic and scientific activity in the late 1400s/early 1500s.
Adopted from the Arabs, who adopted it from the Chinese, this item allowed navigation to become much more precise.
Country that funded Columbus' voyages. One of the first two countries to lay claim to lands in the Americas.
Country the the west of Spain; ruled by Henry the Navigator. One of the first two countries to lay claim to lands in the Americas.
A country in which the majority of people share a common culture and common loyalties toward a central government.
Explored the east coast of South America; the person that America gets its name from.
papal line of demarcation
Determined which lands the Spanish had a claim to and which lands the Portuguese had a claim to. Draw straight down a map of the world by the Pope.
Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)
Treaty that moved the papal line of demarcation a few degrees to the west.
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
Explored a vast swath of North America from present-day New Mexico to Kansas.
System that took slaves to the New World to work for the Spanish. Required that a tax be paid to the Spanish ruler for each slave brought over.
Explored the coast of Newfoundland for England. Gave grounds to the earliest English claims to the New World.
Samuel de Champlain
Established the first permanent French settlement (Quebec) in the New World. Regarded as the "Father of New France."
English method of pooling the resources of people of moderate means in order to support potentially profitable trading ventures.
Joint-stock company that established the first permanent English colony (Jamestown) in the Americas.
Wanted to "purify" the Anglican Church of Catholic influences. Frequently persecuted in England.
Puritans with ambitions of creating a completely new Christian church outside of the Anglican Church, rather than reforming the Anglican Church.
When some 15,000 settlers ran to the Massachusetts Bay Colony to escape the English Civil War.
Colonies under the authority of individuals granted charters of ownership by the king.
Cecil Calvert ( Lord Baltimore)
The son of the first Lord Baltimore. Attempted to further his dead father's plans.
Act of Toleration (1649)
The first colonial statute granting religious freedom to all Christians. Called for the death of anyone who denied the divinity of Jesus.
Someone who came to America by agreeing to work for nothing but room and board for four to seven years.
System under which Virginia offered 50 acres of land to anyone who paid for an immigrant's passage to America.
Poor gentleman farmer who rebelled against Berkeley's government. Led an army of poor white man-virgins from the hills. Died of dysentery.
Created through the joining of Providence and Portsmouth. Offered religious freedom for all.
Led a large group of disgruntled Boston Puritans into the Connecticut River Valley to found Hartford.
Allowed zeal-lacking second-generation Puritans to take part in church activities without making a formal declaration of their total belief in Christ.
New England Confederation
Military alliance between the New England colonies. Created because of frequent attacks by Indians, the Dutch, and the French, and because England was in the throes of a civil war and wasn't going to send aid. Lasted until 1684.
King Philip's War
Vicious Indian vs. New England Confederation conflict. Thousands dead, Indian resistance in New England virtually gone by the end of it.
Colonies founded during the period of English history known as the Restoration.
Granted to eight nobles by Charles II as a reward for helping him gain the English throne.
Plantations commonly found in mid-18th-century South Carolina. Worked by African slaves.
Frequently found in North Carolina. A lack of good transportation prevented these from growing into large plantations.
Divided from New York by King James in 1664. The piece of land between the Hudson River and Delaware Bay.
William Penn's plan to make Pennsylvania a place where persecuted peoples and liberal ideas could thrive.
Frame of Government (1682-1683)
Guaranteed Pennsylvanians a representative assembly elected by landowners.
Charter of Liberties (1701)
Guaranteed Pennsylvanians freedom of worship and unrestricted immigration.
Created when William Penn granted the three lower counties of Pennsylvania their own assembly.
The last colony to be chartered. Was created to provide a buffer against Spanish Florida and to serve as a penal colony.
Economic policy that looked upon trade, colonies, and the accumulation of wealth as the basis for a country's military and political strength.
English-implemented laws stating that 1.Trade to and from the colonies could only be carried by English or colonial crews on English or colonial ships. 2.All goods imported into the colonies, except for some perishables, could pass only through ports in England. 3.Specific (or "enumerated") goods from the colonies could only be exported to England.
Dominion of New England
The result of King James' combining of various New England colonies into a single unit.
Increased massively as the colonies shifted towards more labor-intensive crops and grew in size.
Salem Witchcraft Trials (1692)
Almost 20 hanged by accused of practicing witchcraft in Salem, Massachusetts. Ended by the governor when his wife was accused of witchcraft.