psychology exam 2

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What is the difference between gender and sex?
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List 3 negative side effects of overexposure to porn.1. Habituate (build up a tolerance) to sexual excitement 2. Increases acceptance of the "rape myth" 3. Devalue your own partner and relationshipWhat is sexual orientation?=our enduring sexual attraction toward a certain sexSexual orientation is not an either/or thing, it is viewed by psychologists as being a spectrum. Briefly can shift"My mom has a friend who used to be straight, but then she turned gay." How could you enlighten this person??What is the official stance of the APA regarding sexual orientation?= Sexual orientation is not a choice, nor can it be changedWhat is the difference between sensation and perception?Sensation = the process of receiving stimulus energy from the environment Perception = the process of organizing and interpreting sensory informationWhat is an absolute threshold?= the minimum amount of stimulation necessary to detect the stimulus 50% of the timeWhat is subliminal stimulation?= stimulation that occurs below one's absolute threshold for conscious awarenessHow powerful are the effects of subliminal stimulation?-not as influential as we used to think -affects us through priming (reminds us of stuff)what is a difference threshold?= the minimum amount of stimulus CHANGE necessary to detect the CHANGE 50% of the timeWhat is transduction?= the process by which stimulus energies are converted into neural messagesWhat is the stimulus energy for vision?light wavesWhat are the steps (in order) of transduction for vision?1. Light enters the eye through the cornea 2. Then passes through the pupil (small adjustable opening, surrounded by the iris = colored muscle that adjusts light intake) 3. Light then passes through the lens (focuses incoming light rays) 4. Image is then projected onto the retina (multilayered tissue on the back of the eye) a. Contains the receptor cells for vision (rods & cones) 5. Receptor cells fire, signal travels down the optic nerve to the thalamuswhat is the iris?= colored muscle that adjusts light intakeWhat are the receptor cells for vision? Where are they?rods and cones in the retinaWhy do nocturnal animals see better than us in the dark, but can't see color?they have more rods than usWhat is the stimulus energy for hearing?sound wavesIn the outer ear, sound waves are funneled through the _____, travel along the _____ _____, then bump up against the _____ _____.pinna; auditory canal; tympanic membraneWhat is the tympanic membrane?ear drumHow does sound get transmitted through the middle ear?mechanical motion 1. The vibrations of the ear drum set in motion 3 tiny bones (mallus, incus, and stapes) 2. These bones cause the oval window to vibrateIn the inner ear, the movement of the oval window causes what?vibrationsWhen the fluid in the cochlea is set in motion, it causes what to happen?ripples of movementWhat are the receptor cells for hearing?hair cellsHow do we locate sounds?Our brain can tell the difference between the timing and intensity of the signals that reach each earWhat are the 4 distinct skin senses?pressure warmth cold painSince pain is primarily in the brain, what are 2 ways (besides drugs) we can reduce pain?distracting the brain: conversation counterstimulation: rubbing, massage, acupunctureWhat is the stimulus energy for taste?chemical particlesWhat are the 5 taste sensations?sweet, salty, sour, bitter, umami (savory meaty taste)Why are farts not funny?-you inhale something of whatever it is you are smelling -you're drinking butt juiceWhere does olfactory information go first in the brain? What are the implications of this?-Goes to the limbic system = smell is the strongest linked sense to memory, especially emotional memoriesWhat is the definition of learning (from class)?= A relatively permanent change in behavior, due to experienceWhat is conditioning?= the process of learning associationsWhat is the name of the Russian physiologist who discovered classical conditioning?PavlovWhat is classical conditioning?= a type of learning in which organisms learn an association between stimuli that occur together in timeWhat is the formula for classical conditioning?US = UR CS + US = UR CS = CRWhat is extinction?= the ceasing of a response, due to the breaking of an associationMariah as recently been dating a guy who drives a maroon SUV. She really likes him. So now, every time Mariah is on the road and sees a maroon SUV, even when she's sure it's not him, she gets butterflies in her stomach. What is the US in this scenario? What is the CS? - BE ABLE TO WORK A STORY PROBLEM LIKE THISUS = maroon SUV CS = butterfliesJames's little brother Brandon is obsessed with the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles. Unfortunately for James, Brandon likes to pretend that James is a member of the Foot Clan. Too often, James hears "Cowabunga dude!" right before Brandon comes flying out from somewhere and attacks him with crazy ninja moves. Now, whenever James is anywhere - even when he knows Brandon is not around - and he hears someone say "Cowabunga dude!" (and that happens more than you would think!), he is afraid. What is the US in this scenario? What is the CS? - BE ABLE TO WORK A STORY PROBLEM LIKE THISUS = Cowabunga dude CS = fearAn advertising company has just made a commercial for air freshener. In the commercial, cute little creatures are snuggled in their homes, enjoying the fresh smell. What is the US in this scenario? What is the CS? - BE ABLE TO WORK A STORY PROBLEM LIKE THISUS = cute creatures CS = productWe are biologically prepared to learn some things very quickly - after, perhaps, just one association. What are those things (there are 2 of them)?fear and conditioned taste aversionAnthony used to love pizza. However, one night after eating pizza, he got the stomach flu. He puked up the pizza, and now he can't bring himself to even think about ever eating it again. What is the CS? What is this called? - BE ABLE TO WORK A STORY PROBLEM LIKE THISCS = pizza_____ conducted a very famous study on the acquisition of fear, called the Little _____ study.watson; Little Albert StudyWhat was the US in Watson's study with Little Albert? What was the CS? What was the CR?US = Gong CS = Rat CR = FearIn the study on fear conditioning discussed in class, the baby's fear generalized. What does that mean?= when the CR occurs to stimuli similar to the original CSWhat is operant conditioning?=the type of learning in which a behavior is associated with its consequenceIn what 2 ways is operant conditioning different from classical conditioning?-Association is between behavior & consequence, not 2 stimuli -Response is a choice- operating on the environment- not just reactingIF GIVEN AN EXAMPLE OF A CONDITIONING SITUATION, BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY WHETHER IT IS CLASSICAL OR OPERANT CONDITIONING.There are 2 types of consequences in operant conditioning. _____ increase behaviors and _____ decrease behaviors.-Reinforcers increase behavior -Punishers decrease behaviorWhat is the formula for operant conditioning??_____ used "puzzle boxes" to study how cats learned.ThorndikeWhat does the Law of Effect state?=the consequence of a behavior determines whether or not it is repeatedWho designed the operant chamber?SkinnerWhat is an operant chamber?=soundproof chamber used to study conditioningWhat is shaping?=reinforcing a complex behavior in stepsHow can shaping make tantrums worse?The parent tries to stop reinforcing the original tantrum, the child tries harder, the parent caves= shaped tantrumWhat are positive reinforcers? Give an example.=giving something in order to increase behavior EX- food, attention, moneyWhat are negative reinforcers? Give an example.=taking something away in order to increase behavior EX- ungrounding, relief from chores, later bedtime, hitting snooze buttonWhat are primary reinforcers? Give an example.= things we naturally like Ex) food, water, sex, attention, praiseWhat are secondary reinforcers? Give an example.= things we learn to like because they are associated with primary reinforcers Ex) whistle, moneyWhat is observational learning?= learning by observing and imitating othersWhat are mirror neurons?= frontal lobe neurons that fire when watching others, as if imitating themHow do mirror neurons allow us to be empathetic??_____ used a _____ doll to study how children learn aggressive behavior through observational learning.Bandura; Bobo DollWhat are the 3 processes of memory?encoding, storage, retrieval_____ is the process of putting information into memory.encodingName and briefly describe 2 types of information we automatically encode.-Space = we encode the place on the page where the info is found -The sequence of events = we can retrace our steps for something_____ studied memory by memorizing lists of nonsense syllables.EbbinghausWhat does the spacing effect have to do with how you should study for exams?= we remember info better when our rehearsals are spaced out over time - not crammed_____ practice can produce speedy short-term learning and feelings of confidence. _____ practice produces better long-term recall.massed practice; distributed practiceWhen encoding verbal information, we usually encode its _____, rather than the sounds or words themselves. This is why it is so helpful to elaborate on the information.meaningIf we had to remember a list of words, why would it be easier for us to remember words like "desk" or "lamp" rather than "justice" or "freedom"?We remember words better if they are for things that we can pictureGiven what we know about how memory works, why is it such a good idea to have class notes organized into an outline?Our brain organizes information hierarchicallyWhat is chunking? Give one real life example of chunking.= organizing info into smaller, more manageable units Ex. - phone numbers; alphabetAccording to the conceptualization of memory storage discussed in class, what are the 3 compartments of memory storage?-Sensory memory -Working memory (short-term memory) -Long-term memory_____ memory is where information from the world, in its original sensory form, is held for only an instant.sensory memory_____ memory is where information is that we are currently paying attention to, thinking about, or working with. It only holds about 7 +/- 2 items for only about 15sec (unless we keep thinking about it).working memory_____ memory is the compartment of memory storage that is essentially limitless in its capacity or duration.long-term memoryWhat is explicit memory?= "declarative memory"; can be easily put into words; requires conscious attention for recallWhat is episodic memory?= memory for personal episodesWhat is semantic memory?= memory for facts about the worldWhat is implicit memory?= aka "nondeclarative"; difficult to put into words; often recalled without conscious attentionWhat is procedural memory?= "how to" memoryHow are explicit memory and implicit memory neurologically different?explicit memory- goes through the hippocampus implicit memory- stored in cerebellumWhere in the brain are memories actually stored?no one placeHow does the connectionist model represent memory?= views memory as a spider webAccording to the connectionist model of memory, memories arise from what?-Activation of one node of knowledge causes the activation of other, nearby nodes = spreading activation -One thing reminds you of other thingsDuring learning, there is an increase in the efficiency of neural communication. This increase in synaptic efficiency that occurs during learning is called _____ _____ _____.Long term potentiationIn what 2 ways does neural communication become more efficient during LTP?-The receiving neuron becomes more sensitive (more likely to fire) -The sending neuron releases more neurotransmitterNeurologically speaking, should emotional memories be remembered better or worse? Why?-when the amygdala is processing emotional events, it boosts activity in the hippocampus -Emotional events are remembered extremely well - vivid memories_____ memories are memories of emotionally significant events that are unusually vivid and accurate. An example would be our ability to remember exactly where we were and what we were doing when we heard about 9/11.flashbulb memoriesWhat are cues?= anything that helps us rememberGive 2 examples of cues.words, letters, sounds, smellsWhat is priming?= the activation of particular associationsHow do cognitive psychologists explain déjà vu?= the feeling of reliving an event; it feels like you've been there before, when you haven't -There are so many familiar cues from multiple experiences that the brain mushes them together into one feeling of memoryWhat is state-dependent learning?=What we learn in one mental state is more easily retrieved when we are in the same mental stateHow could forgetting actually help survival?Forgetting increases the efficiency of recallWhat is the difference between proactive and retroactive interference?-Proactive interference = when old info interferes with recalling new info -Retroactive interference = when new info interferes with recalling old infoGive 2 examples of motivated forgetting.?What is repression? Why do we do it?= when we shove painful memories into the unconscious, for protectionWhy do increasing numbers of memory researchers think that repression rarely, if ever, occurs?neurologically it doesn't make sense!H.M. is a famous case of someone with _____ amnesia. He remembered his past, but he could not form new episodic or semantic memories.anterogradeWhat is the primary symptom of retrograde amnesia?=memory loss for a segment of the pastHow do we use prototypes to determine if something fits into a category?= mental images of best examples -When we see an object, we compare it to the prototypeWhat is the difference between trial-and-error problem-solving techniques and the use of algorithms?-Trial-and-error = attempting various solutions until stumbling on one that works -Algorithm = methodical, step-by-step approach which guarantees a solutionWhen solving problems, we may follow a methodical step-by-step procedure that guarantees a solution, called a(n) _____.AlgorithmWhen solving problems, we may use short-cut strategies, involving simple "rules of thumb", called _____.HeuristicsWhen solving problems, sometimes the solution just comes to us in a sudden and often novel realization, a flash of _____.insightOne obstacle to accurate problem solving is the confirmation bias. Briefly explain what this is.= our tendency to seek out information that confirms our ideas, and ignore information that does not -Even if we've formed a wrong idea, we have trouble letting it goSometimes when attempting to solve a problem, we get stuck in a rut. We can't "think outside the box", or see the problem from a fresh perspective. This is called _____.fixationWhat is functional fixedness?= the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functionsIf I make a judgment about you based on how you measure up to a prototype or stereotype I have in mind, which heuristic am I using?Representative heuristicIf I decide not to swim in the ocean because I can think of many examples of shark attacks, and thus assume that they are quite common, which heuristic am I using?Availability heuristicGive one example of animal cognition discussed in class.?Children learn language in a universal, predictable pattern. Describe that pattern (what happens at 4mos, 1yr, and 2yrs).-Babbling (4 months) -Words (1 year) --Nouns - labels of important people or objects - universal -2-words statements (2 years) --Telegraphic speech --"caveman speak" --EX - "you play" "me up" --Word explosion!How did Skinner explain language acquisition?-We can explain language development in terms of learning -Language development is nothing more than learned associationsAccording to _____, humans are born biologically pre-wired to learn language, and are in fact born with a Language Acquisition Device (LAD) in their brains.ChomskyStudies of feral children have yielded evidence for a critical period in language acquisition. Briefly explain what this means.= a time in life by which a first language must be mastered, or no language will be learned -By age 7 years -The brain will reassign those neuronsWhat does a cross-fostering experiment entail?= when the young of one species is raised by anotherThe _____ raised a chimpanzee named _____ as if she were a deaf human child. They successfully taught her American Sign Language.Hayes; VickiThe Gardners recognized 2 reasons why it was silly that we were attempting to teach chimpanzees to speak. What were those 2 reasons?-Tongues are too thick to articulate -In the wild, they communicate primarily through gesturesName two other apes, besides Washoe, who have learned some form of human language.?What is the primary symptom of savant syndrome?= have an exceptional specific skill, but otherwise limited in mental abilityWhat was the operational definition of "intelligence" given in class, and typically used in psychology?=the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and adapt to new situationsAccording to Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Intelligence, what 3 types of intelligence are there?analytical creative practical (problem solving)What is emotional intelligence?=the ability to understand the emotions of others and express one's own emotions appropriatelyWho designed the first intelligence test? What did they actually set out to measure?Binet & Simon -set out to measure a child's "mental age"What do the letters of IQ stand for? How is it calculated?intelligence quotient mental age/chronological age x 100What is the most widely used intelligence test today? What is the version designed for children called?-Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale -Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children