APUSH Review: Revolution


Terms in this set (...)

John Peter Zenger Trial
Central figure in a trial that opened the way for freedom of the press.
Glorious Revolution 1688
Overthrow of James II in favor of William and Mary.
a nation's power depends on its wealth
French and Indian War
(1756-1763) Major French-English conflict that was the first worldwide war.
a.k.a. Seven Years' War
Albany Plan of Union
an attempt at forming a union of the colonies under one government proposed by Ben Franklin
General Braddock
British commander in the French and Indian War. He was killed and his army defeated in a battle at the intersection of the Ohio, Allegheny, and Monongahela Rivers, known as the Battle of Fallen Timbers. After his death, his colonial second-in-command, Col. George Washington, temporarily lead the British forces.
William Pitt
(1708-1778), The Prime Minister of England during the French and Indian War. He increased the British troops and military supplies in the colonies, and this is why England won the war.
Fort Pitt
fort at the convergence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers, present-day Pittsburg, taken over by British and changed name
Fort Duquesne
French fort that was site of first major battle of French and Indian War; General Washington led unsuccessful attack on French troops and was then defeated at Fort Necessity, marking beginning of conflict.
The British general who won the deciding battle of the French and Indian war by scaling the cliffs that surrounded Quebec.
French Military officer at Québec City to 14 Sept 1759. Defeated by the English at the Batlle of the Plains of Abraham in 1759.
a French colony from 1663 to 1759 when it was lost to the British
Treaty of Paris 1763
Treaty by which France ceded most of its holdings to Great Britain and some smaller amounts to Spain.
Pontiac's Rebellion
1763 - An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottowa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed.
Writs of Assistance
legal document that enabled officers to search homes and warehouses for goods that might be smuggled
Paxton Boys
They were a group of Scots-Irish men living in the Appalachian hills that wanted protection from Indian attacks. They made an armed march on Philadelphia in 1764. They protested the lenient way that the Quakers treated the Indians. Their ideas started the Regulator Movement in North Carolina.
Navigation Acts
Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.
Proclamation Line of 1763
England's attempt to end Indian problems by preventing westward movement by colonists.
Grenville's Program
As Prime Minister, he passed the Sugar Act in 1764 and the Stamp Act in 1765 to help finance the cost of maintaining a standing force of British troops in the colonies. He believed in reducing the financial burden on the British by enacting new taxes in the colonies.
Sugar Act
(1764) Act passed by British Parliament that sought to raise revenues by taxing colonial imports, notably the sugar trade.
A movement under which the colonies agreed to stop importing goods from Britain in order to protest the Stamp Act.
Virtual, actual representation
means that a representative is not elected by his constituents, but he resembles them in his political beliefs and goals. Actual representation mean that a representative is elected by his constituents. The colonies only had virtual representation in the British government.
Stamp Act
Obliged colonists to purchase and use special stamped (watermarked) paper for newspapers, customs documents, various licenses, college diplomas, and legal forms used for recovering debts, buying land, and making wills.
Stamp Act Congress
(1765), A meeting of delegations from many of the colonies, the congress was formed to protest the newly passed Stamp Act It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaints to the king and parliament, and it showed signs of colonial unity and organized resistance.
Patrick Henry
a leader of the American Revolution and a famous orator who spoke out against British rule of the American colonies (1736-1799)
Sons of Liberty
Groups formed to resist the Stamp Act.
Internal Taxes
Taxes which arose out of activities that occurred "internally" within the colonies. The Stamp Act was considered an internal tax, because it taxed the colonists on legal transactions they undertook locally. Many colonists and Englishmen felt that Parliament did not have the authority to levy internal taxes on the colonies.
External Taxes
Taxes arose out of activities that originated outside of the colonies, such as customs duties. The Sugar Act was considered an external tax, because it only operated on goods imported into the colonies from overseas. Many colonists who objected to Parliament's "internal" taxes on the colonies felt that Parliament had the authority to levy external taxes on imported goods.
Declatory Act
(1766) Affirmed parliamentary power to legislate for the colonies "in all cases whatsoever".
Quartering Acts
colonists were required to provide housing and food to British soldiers
Townshend Acts
laws passed in 1767 that taxed goods such as glass, paper, paint, lead, and tea
John DIckinson
Drafted a declaration of colonial rights and grievances, and also wrote the series of "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" in 1767 to protest the Townshend Acts. Although an outspoken critic of British policies towards the colonies, Dickinson opposed the Revolution, and, as a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1776, refused to sign the Declaration of Independence.
Massachusetts Circular Letter
A letter written in Boston and circulated through the colonies in February, 1768, which urged the colonies not to import goods taxed by the Townshend Acts. Boston, New York, and Philadelphia agreed to non-importation. It was followed by the Virginia Circular Letter in May, 1768. Parliament ordered all colonial legislatures which did not rescind the circular letters dissolved.
Sam Adams
A Massachusetts politician who was a radical fighter for colonial independence. Helped organize the Sons of Liberty and the Non-Importation Commission, which protested the Townshend Acts, and is believed to have lead the Boston Tea Party. He served in the Continental Congress throughout the Revolution, and served as Governor of Massachusetts from 1794-1797.
Boston Massacre
(1770) Confrontation between colonists and British troops in which five colonists where shot and killed.
Crispus Attucks
A black slave who was shot to death on spot when they opened fire at the angry mob of people(he was the first to die). (Boston Massacre)
John Adams
America's first Vice-President and second President. Sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and wrote the Massachusetts guarantee that freedom of press "ought not to be restrained."
Carolina Regulators
Western frontiersmen who in 1768 rebelled in protest against the high taxes imposed by the Eastern colonial government of North Carolina, and whose organization was crushed by military force by Governor Tryon in 1771. In South Carolina, groups of vigilantes who organized to fignt outlaw bands along the Western frontier in 1767-1769, and who disbanded when regular courts were established in those areas.
Gaspee Incident
a group of rhode island citizens attacked, boarded, looted, and torched the ship
Governor Thomas Hutchinson
He was the Loyalist colonial governor of Massachusetts from 1771-1774 and an opponent of the American Revolution.
Committees of Correspondence
Local committees established throughout colonies to coordinate anti-British actions
Lord North
Prime Minister of England from 1770 to 1782. Although he repealed the Townshend Acts, he generally went along with King George III's repressive policies towards the colonies even though he personally considered them wrong. He hoped for an early peace during the Revolutionary War and resigned after Cornwallis' surrender in 1781.
Tea Act, East India Company
England's attempt to bail out East India Company that heightened tensions between the British and the colonies.
Boston Tea Party
(1773), demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor
Coercive Acts/Intolerable Acts
A series of restrictive laws comprised of the Boston Port Bill, the Massachusetts Government Act, the Justice Act, the Quartering Act, plus the unrelated Quebec Act. Intended by the British Parliament to primarily punish Massachusetts, the acts instead pushed most colonies to the brink of rebellion.
Quebec Act
Extended boundaries of Quebec and granted equal rights to Catholics and recognized legality Catholic Church in the territory; colonists feared this meant that a pope would soon oversee the colonies.
Galloway Plan
1774, A plan proposed by Joseph Galloway that was similar to the Albany Plan. It would have kept the colonies under British control but would have also given them a say in the government. It was rejected by one vote and was expunged from the records.
Lexington and Concord
the first battle of the American Revolution (April 19, 1775)
Paul Revere
American silversmith remembered for his midnight ride (celebrated in a poem by Longfellow) to warn the colonists in Lexington and Concord that British troops were coming (1735-1818)
Second Continental Congress
They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the committee to draft the Declaration of Independence
George Washington
American military leader and the first President of the United States (1789-1797).
Battle of Bunker Hill
First major battle of the Revolutions. It showed that the Americans could hold their own, but the British were also not easy to defeat. Ultimately, the Americans were forced to withdraw after running out of ammunition, and Bunker Hill was in British hands. However, the British suffered more deaths.
Olive Branch Petition
On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.
Common Sense
A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that advocated freedom from British rule.
Natural Rights Philosophy
Proposed by John Locke, it said that human beings had by nature certain rights, such as the rights to life, liberty, and property.
George III
English monarch at the time of the revolution. He was the main opposition for the colonies due to his stubborn attitude and unwillingness to hear out colonial requests/grievances. (1760-1820)
Richard Henry Lee
Member of the Second Continental Congress who urged Congress to support independence; signer of the Declaration of Independence. (1732-1794)
Thomas Jefferson
He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.
Marquis de Lafayette
He was very rich and noble when he arrived in America at the age of 19 years old. He believed in the liberty that the Americans were fighting for and asked to help. He became a general on Washington's staff and fought hard. He was known as "the soldier's friend," and is buried in France but his grave is covered with earth from Bunker Hill.
Benedict Arnold
Successful American general during the Revolution who turned traitor in 1780 and joined the British cause.
Robert Morris
leader of the American Revolution who signed the Declaration of Independence and raised money for the Continental Army (1734-1806)
John Paul Jones
American naval commander in the American Revolution (1747-1792)
German soldiers hired by George III to smash Colonial rebellion, proved good in mechanical sense but they were more concerned about money than duty.
American colonists who were determined to fight the British until American independence was won
Colonists who retained a profound reverence for the British crown and believed that if they failed to defend their king, they would sacrifice their personal honor.
Trenton and Princeton
New Jersey battle where Washington took almost a thousand Hessian prisoners on December 26. It significantly boosted the flailing morale of Washington's troops to fight on.
A turning point in the American Revolution. The American victory in this battle convinced France that Americans could win the war, leading France to ally with the colonists.
Valley Forge
Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutrition, Steuben comes and trains troops
Baron Von Stuben
Prussian general who trained the armies, and helped Americans drill and gather supplies.
The Crisis
A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine during the darkest days of the Revolution for the Patriots that spurred them to keep fighting. "The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot..."
The battle at Yorktown, Virginia, which resulted in the defeat of British military leader Lord Cornwallis and his surrender to George Washington.
Lord Cornwallis
British general whose surrender at Yorktown in 1781 effectively ended the Revolutionary War.
Treaty of Paris 1783
A treaty signed in 1783 when the British recognized American independence and agreed to withdraw all royal troops from the colonies.
Benjamin Franklin
one of the founding fathers; diplomat sent to France to make negotiations during the Revolutionary war;
John Jay
United States diplomat and jurist who negotiated peace treaties with Britain and served as the first chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1745-1829)
Newburgh Conspiracy
The officers of the Continental Army had long gone without pay, and they met in Newburgh, New York to address Congress about their pay. Unfortunately, the American government had little money after the Revolutionary War. They also considered staging a coup and seizing control of the new government, but the plotting ceased when George Washington refused to support the plan.