APUSH Period 7-Key Terms
Terms in this set (98)
Great Britain, France, and Russia
Germany, Austria- Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire
The first major crisis challenging US neutrality occurred when German torpedoes hit and sank a British passenger liner. Wilson sent Germany a strongly worded diplomatic message warning that Germany would be held to "strict accountability" if it continued its policy of sinking unarmed ships.
Following the sinking of the Lusitania, Germany promised not to sink merchant or passenger ships without giving due warning.
Secret offer made by Germany to Mexico. Intercepted by British intelligence a telegram from the German foreign minister proposing that if Mexico allied itself with Germany in return for Germany's pledge to help Mexico recover lost territories: Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. This aroused the nationalist anger of the American people and convinced Wilson that Germany fully expected a war with the US.
War Industry Boards
Set production priorities and established centralized control over raw materials and prices.
National War Labor Board
Headed by William Taft to help arbitrate disputes between workers and employers. Labor won concessions during the war that had earlier been denied. Wages rose, the eight- hour day became more common, and union membership increased.
Provided for imprisonment of up to 20 years for persons who either tried to incite rebellion in the armed forces or obstruct the operation of the draft.
prohibited anyone from making "disloyal" or "abusive" remarks about the US government
Schenk vs. US
Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the Espionage Act in a case involving a man who had been imprisoned for distributing pamphlets against the draft. Concluded that the right to free speech could be limited when it represented a "clear and present danger" to the public safety.
After WWI, this idea was proposed by President Wilson. It advocated open diplomacy, arms reduction, open seas, free trade, a League Nations, and national self-determination. France and Britain didn't agree with most of these ideas because they wanted colonies. Only the League of Nations was included in the Treaty of Versailles.
Treaty of Versailles
Peace conference following the armistice took place outside of Paris. Every nation that had fought on the Allied side in the war was represented. No US president had ever traveled abroad to attend a diplomatic conference, but Wilson decided that his participation was vital to defending his 14 points.
League of Nations
Created at the Treaty of Versailles. International peacekeeping organization. Promoted cooperation and peace among the different nations.
The country suffered from a volatile combination of unhappiness with the peace process, fears of communism fueled by the Communist takeover in Russia, and worries about labor unrest at home.
A series of unexplained bombings that caused Mitchell Palmer to establish an office under J. Hoover to gather info on radicals. Palmer also ordered mass arrests of anarchists, socialists, and labor agitators.
Fordney- McCumber Tariff Act
Increased the duties on foreign manufactured goods by 25%. It was protective of US business interests in the short run but destructive in the long run. Because of it, European nations were slow to recover from the war and had difficulty repaying their war debts to the US. Europe responded to the high US tariffs by imposing tariffs of their own on American imports. This weakened the world economy and were one reason for the Great Depression of the 1930s.
Teapot Dome Scandal
Albert B. Fall accepted bribes for granting oil leases in Wyoming on Federal owned land that was set aside for oil reserves.
Moving Assembly Line
A process in which workers mastered a single skill and repeated it as items moved through the factory. Greatly increased production and reduced cost.
An approach to labor relations in which companies meet some of their workers' needs without prompting by unions, thus preventing strikes and keeping productivity high
Brought north by African American musicians, jazz became a symbol of the "new" and "modern" culture of the cities. The proliferation of phonographs and radios made this new style of music available to a huge public.
By 1930, almost 20% of African Americans lived in the North, as migration from the South continued. The largest African American community developed in the Harlem section of New York City. Harlem became famous in the 1920s for its concentration of talented actors, artists, musicians and writers.
Tennessee, like several other southern states, outlawed the teaching of Darwin's theory of evolution in public schools. To challenge the constitutionality of these laws, the American Civil Liberties Union persuaded a Tennessee biology teacher, John Scopes to teach the theory of evolution to his high school class.
Supporters of the 18th Amendment pointed to declines in alcoholism and alcohol- related deaths, but as the years passed, they gradually weakened in the face of growing public resentment and clear evidence of increased criminal activity. This repealed the 18th amendment and millions celebrated the new year by toasting the end of Prohibition.
Quota laws of 1921 and 1924
The first act limited immigration to 3 percent of the number of foreign- born persons from a given nation counted in the 1910 census. To reduce the number of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe, Congress passed a second act that set quotas of 2% based on the Census of 1890 (before the arrival of most of the "new" immigrants).
Sacco and Venzetti
Liberal American artists loudly protested against racist and nativist prejudices.Rallied to support two Italian immigrants who had been convicted in a Massachusetts court of committing robbery and murder. Liberals protested that the two men were innocent, and that they had been accused, convicted, and sentenced to die simply because they were poor Italians and anarchists. They were executed in 1927.
It drew most of its support from lower- middle- class white Protestants in small cities and towns. Northern branches of the group directed their hostility not only against blacks but also against Catholics, Jews, foreigners, and suspected Communists. They employed various methods for terrorizing and intimidating anyone targeted as "un- American"
Kellogg- Briand Pact
Almost all the nations of the world signed this, which renounced the aggressive use of force to achieve national ends. This international agreement would prove ineffective, however, since it permitted defensive wars and failed to provide for taking action against violators of the agreement.
Dawes Plan of 1924
Established a cycle of payments flowing from the US to Germany and from Germany to the Allies. US banks would lend Germany huge sums rebuild its economy and pay reparations to Britain and France. In turn, Britain and France would use the reparation money to pay their war debts to the US. After the stock market crash of 1929, however, US bank loans stopped and the prosperity propped up by this collapsed.
On this day the stock market crashed as millions of panicky investors ordered their brokers to sell- but almost no buyers could be found. From that day on, prices on Wall Street kept going down and down. Three years later, stock prices would finally hit bottom at 41, less than one- ninth of their peak value.
Purchasing stocks with borrowed money with the intent of making a profit and repaying the loan when the stock prices rise.
Many people believed they could get rich "playing the market", people were assuming the price of stock would go up and they could then sell it quickly.
Business growth had produced a volume of goods that workers didn't have the income to buy.
Hawley- Smoot Tariff
Passed by the Republican congress set tax increases ranging from 31 to 49 percent on foreign imports. European countries enacted higher tariffs of their own against US goods. The effect was to reduce trade for all nations, meaning that both the national and international economies sank further into depression.
A thousand unemployed WW1 veterans marched to Washington, DC to demand immediate payment of the bonuses promised them at a later date. They were eventually joined by thousands of other veterans who brought their wives and children and camped in improvised shacks near the Capital. The incident caused many Americans to regard Hoover as headless and uncaring because he ordered the army to break up the encampment.
Bank Holiday/Emergency Banking Act
To restore confidence in those banks that were still solvent, the president ordered the banks closed. He went on the radio to explain that the banks would be reopened after allowing enough time for the government to reorganize them on a sound basis.
Relief for people out of work. Recovery for business and fvthe economy as a whole. Reform of American economic institutions.
President assured his listeners that the banks which reopened after the bank holiday were safe. The public responded as hoped, with the money deposited in the reopened banks exceeding the money withdrawn.
Overproduction of Consumer Goods
Business growth, aided by increased productivity and use of credit, had produced a volume of goods that workers with stagnant wages could not continue to purchase.
Stock Market Speculation
Buying on margin allowed people to borrow most of the cost of the stock, making down payments as low as 10%. Investors depended on the price of the stock increasing so that they could repay the loan.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
Guaranteed individual bank deposits. Gold standard was restricted to international transactions, and the Americans could no longer exchange their dollars for gold.
Public Works Administration (PWA)
Allotted money to state and local governments for building roads, bridges, dams, and other public works.
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
Employed young men on projects on federal lands and paid their families small monthly sums.
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
Huge experiment in regional development and planning. Hired thousands of people in one of the nation's poorest regions, ..., to build dams, operate electric power plants, control flooding and erosion, and manufacture fertilizer.
National Recovery Administration
Key measure to combine immediate relief and long term reform was this organization. An attempt to guarantee antitrust laws temporarily suspended, could help each industry set codes for wages, hours of work, levels of production, and prices of finished goods.
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
Created to regulate the stock market and to place strict limits on the kind of speculative practices that had led to the Wall Street crash. Also required full audits of and financial disclosure by corporations to protect investors from fraud and insider trading.
A series of reforms enacted by the Franklin Roosevelt administration between 1933 and 1942 with the goal of ending the Great Depression.
Hundred Days Congress
Roosevelt called Congress into a hundred- day- long special session. During this brief period, Congress passed into law every request of President Roosevelt, enacting more major legislation than any single Congress in history.
Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA)
Offered outright grants of federal money to states and local governments that were orating soup kitchens and other forms of relief for the jobless and homeless.
A severe drought in the early 1930s ruined crops in the Great Plains. This region became known as the .... , as poor farming practices coupled with high winds blew away millions of tons of dried top soil.
This group under Adolf Hitler had come to power in Germany with promises of reasserting German nationalism and militarism.
Germany, Italy, Japan
Good- Neighbor Policy
In his first inaugural address , FDR promised this toward other nations of the Western Hemisphere. Interventionism in support of dollar diplomacy no longer made economic sense because US businesses during the depression lacked the resources to invest in foreign operations. The rise of militarist regimes in Germany and Italy prompted FDR to seek Latin American's cooperation in defending the region from potential danger. US pledged never again to intervene in the internal affairs of a Latin American country. Cuba persuaded Congress to nullify the Platt Amendment, retaining only the US right to keep its naval base at Guantanamo Bay. FDR rejected corporate demands to intervene and encouraged American companies to negotiate a settlement.
To ensure that US policy would be strictly neutral if war broke out in Europe, Congress adopted a series of neutrality acts, which FDR signed with some reluctance. They authorized the president to prohibit all arms shipments and to forbid US citizens to travel on the ships of belligerent nations, forbade the extension of loans and credits to belligerents, forbade the shipment of arms to the opposing sides in the civil war in Spain.
Poland was the first to fall to Germany's overwhelming use of air power and fast- moving tanks through this type of warfare.
Cash and Carry
Roosevelt persuaded Congress to adopt less restrictive Neutrality Act, which provided that a belligerent could buy US arms if it used its own ships and paid cash. Was neutral but in practice, it strongly favored Britain.
Lend- Lease Act
FDR proposed ending the cash- and -carry requirement of the Neutrality Act and permitting Britain to obtain all the US arms it needed on credit.
On December 7, 1941, while most American sailors were still asleep in their bunks, Japanese planes from aircraft carriers attacked every US ship in sight. Attack lasted less than two hours. Addressing Congress on the day after the attack, Roosevelt described December 7th as "a date which will live in infamy." Congress acted immediately by declaring war, with only one dissenting vote. Germany and Italy honored their treaty with Japan by declaring war on the US 3 days later. The three Allied leaders- Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin- agreed to concentrate on the war in Europe before shifting their resources to counter Japanese advances in the Pacific.
Office of Price Administration
Regulated almost every aspect of civilians' lives by freezing prices, wages, and rents and rationing such commodities as meat, sugar, gasoline, and auto tires, primarily to fight wartime inflation.
Supported by the Office of Research and Development which was established to contract scientists and universities to help in the development of electronics, especially this, the Atomic bomb.
An agreement with Mexico allowed Mexican farmworkers to enter the US in the harvest season without going through formal immigration procedures.
The sudden influx of Mexican immigrants (braceros) into Los Angeles stirred while resentment and led to these in the summer in which whites and Mexican Americans battled on the streets.
Korematsu v. US
Supreme Court upheld the US government's internment policy as justified in wartime. The federal government agreed the ruling was unjust and awarded financial compensation to those still alive who had been interned.
Rosie the Riveter
Encouraged women to take defense jobs and join the work force in the US.
Became president when FDR died; gave the order to drop the atomic bomb.
As US troops advanced through Germany, they came upon German concentration camps and witnessed the horrifying extent of the Nazis' program of genocide against the Jews and others. Americans and the world were shocked to learn that 6 million Jewish civilians and several million non- Jews had been systematically murdered by Nazi Germany.
US began a long campaign to get within striking distance of Japan's home islands by seizing strategic locate in the Pacific. Using this strategy commanders bypassed strongly held Japanese posts and isolated them with naval and air power.
Harry Truman and wartime allies called on Japan to surrender unconditionally or face "utter destruction." When Japan gave an unsatisfactory reply Truman consulted with his advisers and decided to use the new weapon on two Japanese cities. An A- bomb was dropped on these two cities. Japan surrendered.
The Allied drive to liberate France began on this day, with the largest invasion by sea in history. Forces under General Eisenhower secured sever beachheads on the Normandy Coast. The Allied offensive moved rapidly to roll back German occupying forces. By the end of August, Paris was liberated.
An international organization formed after WWII to promote international peace, security, and cooperation.
The Big 3 conferred here, on the coast of the Soviet Union. After victory in Europe was achieved, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin agreed that Germany would be divided into occupation zones, free elections in liberated countries of Eastern Europe, Soviets would enter the war against Japan, Soviets would control the southern half of Sakhalin Island and the Kurile islands, a new world peace organization would be formed.
After Germany's surrender, only Stalin remained as one of the Big 3. Truman was the new president, and there was a new British prime minister. Here they agreed to demand that Japan surrender unconditionally and to hold war- crime trials of Nazi leaders.
The belief that America is a uniquely special place and that we should spread our ideals and beliefs around the world.
A form of writing used by newspapers that often exaggerated information or lied in order to drive sales. Was a leading factor in the start of the Spanish-American War.
Remember the Maine
A popular battle cry after a US Navy ship shank in Havana Harbor-served as one of the leading catalysts to start the Spanish American War
A cavalry unit from the Spanish-American War that included Teddy Roosevelt and famously stormed up San Juan Hill in Cuba.
Provide the the US the power to oversee Cuba. It was even written into the constitution of Cuba.
Open Door Policy
The US foreign policy that attempted to end the spheres of influence in China and provide a new market for trade.
Foreign policy of William Taft that focused on the protection of US investments overseas.
An modification of the Monroe Doctrine that said the US would handle any Latin American country that was a "chronic wrongdoer"
Great White Fleet
A PR move by Roosevelt designed to show military strength to the rest of the world, especially Japan.
A pledge by the US that they would not annex Cuba and they would be free after the Spanish-American War. Designed to satisfy the anti-imperialism movement.
Spheres of Influence
Pockets in China controlled by foreign countries where they established beneficial trading policies and rules.
An uprising in China because of concern over increasing foreign control of the government. The US along with other nations provided a force to put down the uprising.
A large scale migration of blacks from the South to Northern Industrial cities looking for work. Helped spur the Harlem Renaissance.
A fear of foreign people and cultures. A sharp rise in the 1920's led to limitations on immigration.
Expanded the power of the Federal Reserve and provide additional money to loan to banks to increase the credit market.
Nickname given to shanty towns and communities that emerged during the Great Depression. Hoover was blamed for this lack of action during the Great Depression.
Passed during the Great Depression, it provided workers greater power to negotiate with companies. It created the National Labor Relations Board to help mediate disputes.
"return to normalcy"
The slogan used by Harding to explain the agenda of the Republican led White House. Served as rejection of the Progressive Movement.
The victims of the Dust Bowl who had to relocate to CA. Famously depicted in Grapes of Wrath.
FDR attempted to expand the size of the Supreme Court because they overturned several pieces of legislation. He hoped to create a more sympathetic group.
Social Security Act
Social Security Act of 1935 created a federal insurance program based on the automatic collection of taxes from employees and employers throughout people's working careers. They would receive this money in a monthly pension when they reached the age of 65. The unemployed, disabled, and mothers with dependent children would also receive this money.
Theory based on the principles of John Maynard Keynes, stating that government spending should increase during business slumps and be curbed during booms.
An organization formed by prominent Americans who argued the expansion of the US into foreign territories was immoral and violated our principles. They said power comes from consent of the governed and we were denying them that.
Japanese Interment Camps
A policy of the US government to hold Japanese immigrants and citizens in camps for the duration of WWII. The people were often required to sell off businesses and homes quickly and at massive losses.
"Arsenal of Democracy"
A speech given by FDR in which he pledged the US would provide weapons to participants of the war on a "cash and carry" policy, but the US would remain neutral.
American First Committee
An organization formed to prevent the US getting involved with WWII. They were led by Charles Lindbergh, who opposed programs like the Lend-Lease Act.
War Powers Act
Passed by Congress in December of 1941, it gave FDR tremendous authority to make massive changes in order to win the war.