Simsbury Seniors AP Psychology Emotion and Stress

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Terms in this set (...)

Emotion
a response of the whole organism involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience
James-Lange Theory
-the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
-when you see something scary, that arouses the ANS (changes in body) and then you process it
-physiological → react → conscious cognitive response
Cannon-Bard Theory
-the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion
-our physiological response and experienced emotion are separate
-physical and conscious stuff happen at the same time due to the thalamus
Two-Factor Theory
-the Schachter-Singer theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal
-like James and Lange, Schachter and Singer presumed that our experience of emotion grows from our awareness of our body's arousal
-like Cannon and Bard, Schachter and Singer also believed that emotions are physiologically similar
-an emotional experience requires a conscious interpretation of the arousal
Facial Feedback
the effect of facial expressions on experienced emotions, as when a facial expression of anger or happiness intensifies feelings of anger or happiness
Facial Feedback Theory
-facial movement can influence emotional experience
-when your facial muscles contract, that behavior changes/spurs how you're feeling
Lazarus's Cognitive Appraisal Theory
-The theory in psychology that emotions are extracted from our evaluations (appraisals or estimates) of events that cause specific reactions in different people. Essentially, our appraisal of a situation causes an emotional, or affective, response that is going to be based on that appraisal.
-Conscious thought (appraisal of threat) determines bodily response
-Basically the opposite of James-Lange Theory
Catharsis
Emotional release. The catharsis hypothesis maintains that "releasing" aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges
Feel-Good, Do-Good Phenomenon
people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood
Well-Being
Self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of objective well-being (for example, physical and economic indicators) to evaluate people's quality of life
Adaptation-Level Phenomenon
our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience
Relative Deprivation
the perception that we are worse off relative to those with whom we compare ourselves
Behavioral Medicine
an interdisciplinary field that integrates behavioral and medical knowledge and applies that knowledge to health and disease
Health Psychology
a subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine
Stress
the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
Hans Selye's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three phases-- alarm, resistance, exhaustion

Alarm—fight-or-flight activated
Resistance—adjustment to constant alert, depleting neurotransmitters and hormones
Exhaustion—depletion agitation, burnout (constant exhaustion without physical exercise)
Coronary Heart Disease
the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in North America
Type A
-Friedman and Rosenman's term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people
-have higher stress levels, and are twice as likely to suffer a heart attack
Type B
Friedman and Rosenman's term for easygoing, relaxed people
Psychophysiological Illness
literally, "mind-body" illness; any stress-related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches
Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)
the study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes together affect the immune system and resulting health
Lymphocytes
the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system: B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections; T lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances
Darwinian Theory of Emotion
Basic emotions evolved because they promote survival
Paul Ekman's Six Basic Emotions
happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, surprise
Burnout
physical, mental, and emotional exhaustion caused by excessive and prolonged stress
Burnout is. . .
1. depersonalization
2. reduced personal accomplishment
3. emotional exhaustion
Burnout comes from. . .
-working too much
-working in an unjust environment
-working with little social support
-working with little agency or control
-working in an environment that contradicts one's values
-working for insufficient reward (money, positive feedback)
Burnout at work tends to happen most in. . .
-service professions (nursing, teaching, social work, clergy)
-the young
-single people
-childless people
Environmental Variables Related to Stress
-Significant life changes (having a child, getting married, getting a divorce, getting fired, etc.)
-Motivational conflicts
-Frustration
-Catastrophes and disasters
-Small hassles add up!
-Higher temperatures (correlational)
-Crowding
-Predictability (stressors have fewer physical consequences when they are predictable)
-Perceived control
Theory X (Management)
authoritarian, repressive style; tight control, no development; produces limited, depressed culture
Theory Y (Management)
liberating and developmental; control, achievement, and continuous improvement achieved by enabling, empowering, and giving responsibility
Yerkes-Dodson Law
Physiological stress responses can be managed healthily through. . .
-Exercise
-Mediation
-Progressive relaxation
-Guided imagery / visualization
-Use of biofeedback
-Regular routines for primary needs
People with learned helplessness tend to. . .
-Have an internal, rather than external, locus of control for failures
-Lack self-efficacy
-Have a pessimistic, rather than optimistic, explanatory lifestyle
-Be more likely to suffer from depression
We can alter stressful cognitive messages to ourselves by...
-Correcting irrational appraisals
-Maintaining optimism for the future
-Using problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping appropriately
-Using active coping strategies rather than avoidant coping strategies to reduce long-term stress
Types of Aggression
Physical, relational, self
Biological Factors Related to Aggressive Behavior
-Low serotonin
-High testosterone
-Lower amygdala volume/activity
-Low anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity
What Is Aggression?
-Involves both living and nonliving things
-Aggression is intentional
-Is an act aggressive if it is part of duty or job responsibility? Depends on intent.
-Self-injury is aggressive
-Is killing for sport (hunting) aggressive? Depends on intent.
-Are acts of self-defense aggressive? Likely.
Aggression
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
SAM Pathway
threat pathway (fight or flight)
HPAC Pathway
ongoing issues
HPA-Axis
one pathway for threat stress and one pathway for toxic stress (h for hypothalamus, p for pituitary gland, a for adrenal)
Epinephrine (adrenaline)
dilates the bronchial tubes in the lungs to make space for more oxygen and charges the heart, enabling more blood to push through; dilates the blood vessels leading away from the heart so that the oxygenated blood can flow freely to the brain and the muscles, which must be ready to flee or flight
Norepinephrine
constricts the veins leading to the heart so returning blood can slam more powerfully into the chamber and exit with even more force; it constricts the arteries leading to the skin to slow down bleeding in the event of an injury
Cortisol
mobilizes cells' stored energy and keeps the rations coming for the duration of the stressor; in non-emergency situations, it follows the body's circadian rhythm (high in early morning and lowest at night)
Challenge Stress
you know you can succeed, and it is good for you; epinephrine shoots into your system; norepinephrine follows, but in lesser amounts; cortisol inches up
Threat Stress
you may be so worried that you fail to sleep adequately; norepinephrine has beaten out epinephrine, causing more constriction than dilation of your blood vessels, and cortisol gushes
Toxic Stress
you're overwhelmed and feel out of control, and you may develop learned helplessness (not even trying to cope because you feel there is no point)
Too much cortisol. . .
-May cause memory to decrease due to the Yerkes-Dodson law
-Will cause it to attach to glucocorticoid receptors, which disrupt memory
-May cause dendrites in the hippocampus to wither
Coping
alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods
Problem-Focused Coping
attempting to alleviate stress directly-- by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor
Emotion-Focused Coping
attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to one's stress reaction
Aerobic Exercise
sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness; may also alleviate depression and anxiety
Biofeedback
a system for electronically recording, amplifying, and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state, such as blood pressure or muscle tension
Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)
As yet unproven health care treatments intended to supplement (complement) or serve as alternatives to conventional medicine, and which typically are not widely taught in medical schools, used in hospitals, or reimbursed by insurance companies. When research shows a therapy to be safe and effective, it usually then becomes part of accepted medical practice.