16 terms

Media and Limited War 4

Lessons of Vietnam (Hallin)
-Vietnam syndrome haunt many minds
- View that TV lost war seen as 'conventional wisdom' (Hallin)
Background to Vietnam
-French colony
- America gets involved when vietnam becomes part of global cold war struggle
- Containment and Domino Theory dominate strategic thinking
Media and Military defeat (VN)
- Tech shift over period of VN war with rise of TV as dominant media
- can give certain impression of war to create public opinion
- elements of media blamed:
1. graphic images: what is approps for TV
2. pessimistic framing: focus of errors
3. accumulating effect: chipping away at public opinion
4. nature of television: intimate and trustworth medium. emotive imagery and more believable
Preventing Victory Thesis
-victory was possible but prevented through imagery
- negative images made there way to the public, causing a drop in support
- Raegan: "denied permission to win"
- limited war: limited resources
- cultural change : Youth culture looking for sensational imagery and investigative reporting
Misreporting tet offensive
- reporting of tet offensive identified as key turning point
- media critics see misrepresentation of facts
- Cronkite impact: journalist who reported on vietnam and alerted public of stalemate altering public opinion and anti war candidate ran fro presidency
Does TV have an impact? (Arlen)
Arlen, trivialize soldiers and tame: you aren't seeing reality, limited perspective
Why Blame TV? (Mueller)
- Only one factor
- Could blame drafting: people didnt want to go which effects families ideas of war
- Mueller: casualties - effect families and turns opinion
- poor leadership
- poor media management
Daniel Hallins: the Uncensored war
- Challenged belief that media lost war
- found media largely followed elite from consensus in 1963 to dividion after 1968
- argument that TV negative by nature flawed
Hallins Objectivity Model
1. (inner) Sphere of consensus: Rally Around the flag. Support government. no obligation to be objective
2. (Middle) Spehere of deviance: those who provide political view point when there is consensus, terrorists
3. (outer) Sphere of legitimate controversy: Issues of political contest and debate. When objectivity comes into play for journalists
The indexing hypothesis (bennett) (mermin)
- Bennety found that NYT colsley followed US congress during Nicaragua conflict.
- correlation version and marginalization (mermin): critical views amongst elite are either ignored or put to the back
Lessons of vietnam for the military and journalists
- Military: Have to control media and information coming out no more "uncensored wars"
- Journalists: Often considered most professional war coverage
Falklands/ Malvinas war (1982)
- Logistics made media covergae difficult., journalists reliant on military.
- opposite of vietnam: "censored war"
- large list of censorship rules - limited stories for media
Propganda tools?
- many journalists soon realised that anything deemed negative would get censored
- reliance on navy transmissions meant limited access (logistics favoured Navy)
-Lessons of Falklands: Heavy control over short limited war can work
Grenada (1983)
- First US war since Vietnam; fit into cold war narrative, concern for domino effect
- attempt to apply falklands effect but unsuccessful
1991 gulf war
-Iraq invaed kuwait in 1990
- goal: manage media to present bloodless high tech war for a just cause
- pools and pentagon video dominate coverage
-kicked vietnam war syndrome
Key factors in limited war
success means war that is short, decisive and low cost