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60 terms

APES Water Unit Review

AP Environmental science review of key vocal and concepts for water unit
STUDY
PLAY
Transpiration
The process in the water cycle where water goes from plants into air, dew drops evaporating into sky/clouds
Percolation/Infiltration
The process in the water cycle of rain water filtering through the ground, back into aquifers or groundwater supply
Runoff
Process in the water cycle of water going from high to low, ending up in water basins such as lakes, rivers, etc
Precipitation
Process of water collected in clouds going down to ground, rain, snow, etc
Water cycle
Evap, precip, condens, runoff, percolation, transpiration, etc. Cycling of all water in biosphere
Water Availability percentages
97.5% of all water on earth is saltwater, 2.5% freshwater. Of freshwater, 87% is frozen, 13% liquid. Of liquid freshwater, 95% underground. ONLY 3% of liquid freshwater in lakes and rivers, only accessible part of water
Wetland-definition
MUST have all 3: hydrophytic plants, hydric soil, hydrology
Wetland-functions
absorb flood and rain water, filter water, provide habitat to many species, act as a barrier to storms, recreational location, store carbon, provide food
Hydrophytic Plants
plants that like water of wet areas, grow best in wetland environment
Hydric Soils
soils that indicate wet conditions-usually gray in color due to low oxygen levels
Mitigation
The creation of new "artificial" wetlands to compensate for those destroyed by development, expensive and more or less effective
Restoration
The process of restoring wetlands to their natural cycling and habitat to make up for damages occurred from draining
Reclaimation
an attempt to regain something lost, in terms of wetlands lost or no longer usable
Bureau of Reclaimation
Name of the dam building committee, ironic how it ended up damaging rivers and lake ecosystems
Aquifer
layers of water in the earth, caverns of water, wet rock. Confined aquifer=between two layers of impermeable rock, unconfined=access to permeable soil or water table, allowing infiltration and new water to be added
Artesian Well
a well accessing only confined aquifers, water is potentially cleaner because no external sources of water, aquifer is confined
Cone of depression
created when pumping out ground water too quickly, an underground suction force around the aquifer, can cause soil to be sucked up well
Water Table
upper level of water in the soil, goes down during dry weather, up during floods
Recharge
refilling of aquifers from percolation, slow process, not all aquifers recharge, water is unsustainable when recharge is slower than use of water (almost always)
Ogallala Aquifer
Largest aquifer in the world, located in the midwest US, essentially no recharge, use is 40 times faster than recharging
Saltwater Intrusion
coastal areas, large amounts of well pumping causes salt water to be sucked into well, taints water, caused by cone of depression
MTBE
A gasoline additive, common water pollutant, carcinogen in animals and potentially humans, in groundwater from leaky gas storage tanks
Arsenic
toxic metal found naturally in some rock that wells drilled in, common water pollutant
Oligotrophic
phase of lakes life cycle, "baby phase", low nutrients (NPK), low algae/plants, high water clarity, cold water temp, high dissolved O2, sandy/rocky bottom
Mesotrophic
phase of lakes life cycle, middle phase, moderate nutrients, algae/plants, temp, dissolved O2; rocky/mucky bottom
Eutrophic
phase of lakes life cycle, oldie phase, high nutrients (fertilizer), high algae/plants, low water clarity (pea soup), high water temp+activity, low dissolved O2 levels, organic mushy muck bottom
Cultural eutrophication
Eutrophication of a lake is a natural process, but addition of fertilizers from runoff speeds up this process in a bad way, making lakes "die" earlier. Main nutrients added NPK, common in fertilizers and phosphate detergents
Steps of Eutrophication
1)nutrients added to water, stimulates plant growth. 2)Algal Blooms occur in water. 3) Algae die, decomposed by bacteria. 4)All oxygen used up to decompose lots of dead algae. 5)Oxygen depleted are (hypoxic zone) is "dead zone" area of no life
Point Source Pollution
pollution from a single, traced source, very rare as most pollutants can't be completely traced. drain pipes, effluent or sewage treatment
Non-point source pollution
polltion scattered, can't be traced to a single source. fertilizer runoff, sediment, pollution from lawns
Major Sources of water pollution
Top source:agriculture, industry, mining
Oxygen demanding waste
wastes that deplete water of DO, anything that is biodegradable qualifies. Bacteria decompose this, they use oxygen to do so
Biological Oxygen Demand
demand from organisms (bacteria) for oxygen use in an ecosystem. stream with lots of biodegradable waste will have high BOD, common water test to test for pollution
Oil Pollution
most actually from land, oil kills organisms due to volatile compounds. Oil settle in organisms in food chain for years, spill cleanup only recovers about 15% of spill
Tar balls
coat feathers and fur of animals in oil spill, reduces buoyancy and movement
Exxon Valdez
famous oil spill in prince william sound AK, second biggest in history 11-25 Million gallons of oil spilled approx
Deepwater Horizon (BP)
Biggest oil spill EVER in gulf of MX, oil rig explosion, 2.5/4 mil gallons/day, open from 4/20-7/15. effects still present in ecosystem, many effects unknown
N-P-K Ratios
amount of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium in fertilizers, important to see what nutrients are depleted in your lawn to buy an efficient fertilizer for you
Hypoxic/dead zone
an area, typically a lake, which is depleted of oxygen due to process of (cultural) eutrophication, most organisms die because of living conditions
Estuary
area where freshwater meets saltwater, MUCH growth and biodiversity here, as many organisms can live. greatest area of NPP
brackish
describing an area of salt and fresh water, see estuary, briny
Coral Reef
coral=keystone species forms calcium carbonate shell. very high biodiversity, high salinity, constant temps, high GPP, high sun exposure
Zooxanthallae
brownish yellow algae found in coral, necessary component in coral ecosystem
Pelagic Zone
open ocean, not near land
Bathyal Zone
pelagic biome receiving little to no sunlight, lower biodiversity because lack of plants because of low sun exposure
Euphotic Zone
pelagic biome receiving lots of sun, little substrate, high biodiversity
Abyssal Zone
pelagic biome receiving no sunlight, bottom of the ocean floor, high salinity
Benthic Zone
bottom under body of water
Intertidal zone
tide pools, where water shifts over and off of area
Watershed
the area which a certain body of water (e.g. Mississippi) provides to. MS is biggest one in US
Lake stratification
water densest at 39º F, winter layered, autumn and spring turnovers, summer layering
Thermocline
temperature gradient in water
Water conservation
using less water, strategies like graywater, low flow showers, center pivot irrigation, rain barrels, low flush toilets, drip irrigation, Xeriscaping; wasting less water to conserve
Water diversion
the manipulation of water for human benefit, mainly dams. this allows life in areas otherwise too dry
Primary treatment
removing large solids by filtering out waste, bar screens used
Secondary treatment
settling tanks remove mud/sediment, bacteria put in water to eat away dissolved solids
Tertiary treatment
removing chemicals in water still remaining after bacteria, e.g. hormones, pesticides, preventing them from entering back into water sources. EXTREMELY experimental and rare
WT Biological oxygen demand
common water test to see how much oxygen demanding wastes are in the water
WT Dissolved Oxygen
amount of oxygen present in the water and available for organisms to use, colder H2O temps allow for more DO
WT Fecal Coliform
measuring amount of harmful bacteria in the water, often from organic fertilizers (manure) flowing into river