the size of the joint the amount of movement allowed by the joint whether a joint cavity is present the location of the joint A) amount of movement allowed by the joint
Which of the following does NOT represent a structural classification of joints
synovial fibrous diarthrosis cartilaginous A) Diarthrosis, which refers to a freely movable joint, represents a functional classification.
Which of the following refers to a joint that is immovable?
synovial synarthrosis amphiarthrosis diarthrosis A) Synarthroses are immovable joints and include sutures and syndesmoses
Know the three types of fibrous joints and what a joint containing that type would look like
Suture, Syndesmosis, and Gomphosis
All three joints in the below figure are classified as ______.
Picture of Suture, Syndesmosis, and gomphosis joints. a) Fibrous connected by dense fibrous tissue to form a joint lacking a cavity
Which of these joints would be functionally classified as diarthrotic
again pictures of each of the three fibrous joints ABC then D none of the above A) D none of the fibrous joints are diarthrotic (freely moving).
Which of the following is true regarding the structure indicated by the arrow in the joint depicted in A?
A is a picture of a fibrous joint, a suture on the skull. It is formed by a synovial membrane. It is classified as amphiarthrotic. It is composed of hyaline cartilage. It becomes ossified late in adult development. A) becomes ossified late in adult development
The arrows in B and C point to structures that can both be described as a
a picture of a syndesmosis and gomphosis joint. The arrow is pointing to where the bones are held together in the first case and what is holding the peg in the hole in the 2nd case. bone ligament muscle tendon A) ligaments hold peg in and syndesmosis joints together
An example of an interosseus fibrous joint is _______
the clavicle and the scapula at the distal ends the radius and ulna along its length between the vertebrae between the humerus and the glenoid cavity a) the radius and ulna along its length
know what a synchondroses joint and symphyses joint look like
Identify picture showing synchondroses (epiphyseal and joint between 1st rib and sternum) and symphyses (pubic, vertebra) joints
Again same 4 pics of same joints. These joints are all examples of ________ type joints.
The joints indicated by the arrows in C and D are distinguished from those indicated in A and B by the presence of which of the following tissues?
C&D are a vertebre and Public Symphysis A&B are
fibro-cartilage spongy bone compact bone elastic cartilage A) Fibro - cartilage
Which of the following statements regarding the joints between the ribs and sternum is correct? a)The joints between the first ribs and sternum are synchondroses; the joints between the other ribs and sternum are symphyses. b) The joints between the first ribs and sternum are synarthrotic; the joints between the other ribs and sternum are diarthrotic. This joint is labeled B in the figure. c) All joints between the ribs and sternum are classified as cartilaginous joints. d) All joints between the ribs and sternum are classified as synovial joints
A) The joints between the first ribs and sternum are synarthrotic; the joints between the other ribs and sternum are diathrotic. The joints formed between the ribs and sternum, with the exception of the first rib, are diarthrotic synovial joints
Which of the following are CORRECTLY paired? a)syndesmoses: bony edges interlock b) gomphoses: articulating bones are separated by a fluid containing cavity c) suture: bones connected exclusively by ligaments d) synchondrosis: a plate of hyaline cartilage unites the bones
A synchondrosis is a plate of hyaline cartilage that unites the bones. Epiphyseal plates are examples of synchondroses.
Using the structural classification, what type of joint is the epiphyseal plate synarthrotic joint amphiarthrotic joint cartilaginous joint fibrous joint
The epiphyseal plate is a cartilaginous joint-a hyaline cartilage "growth plate" between the epiphysis and diaphysis of a long bone
Be able to match joint term to definition suture, Gomphosis, Symphysis, synchondrosis
Symphysis Bones united by fibrocartilage Suture Joint found only in the skull Gomphosis Tooth in socket Synchondrosis Bones united by hyaline cartilage
name In synovial joint - ligament, articular cartilage, periosteum, joint cavity, fibrous layer, synovial membrane, last 2 inside articular capsule
functional classification of the illustrated joint with regard to its range of movement (picture of same synovial joint) amphiarthrotic synarthrotic diarthrotic synovial
Synovial joints are considered to be freely movable and therefore described as diarthrotic.
Which structure is composed primarily of dense irregular connective tissue (Picture of synovial joint w/ pointers at ABCD)
Structure D forms the fibrous capsule surrounding the joint cavity
Structure C and D collectively form which of the following articular cartilage and synovial membrane
The generalized model for the structural type of joint illustrated shares the LEAST number of features with which of the following? (picture of synovial joint) knee joint intercarpal joint intervertebral joint elbow joint
The joints between vertebrae lack a joint cavity and are classified as sympheses, not synovial joints
Which joint in the figure is capable of multiaxial movement? Shoulder, radioulnar, thumb, knuckle, Intercarpal, interphalangeal
Ball-and-socket joints, as found in the shoulder and hip, are capable of multiaxial movement in all three planes.
Which joint in the above figure is limited to nonaxial gliding movements? Shoulder, radioulnar, thumb, knuckle, Intercarpal, interphalangeal
The intercarpal and carpometacarpal joints of the palm (and equivalents in the foot) form plane joints that allow for only short nonaxial gliding movements
Which joint moves only by a uniaxial movement around its own axis? Shoulder, radioulnar, thumb, knuckle, Intercarpal, interphalangeal
The radioulnar joint is a pivot joint in which movement of the ulna is limited to rotation along its own long axis.
Which of the following is a hinge joint? Shoulder, radioulnar, thumb, knuckle, Intercarpal, interphalangeal
Interphalangeal joints are hinge joints capable of uniaxial angular movement
The thumb joint indicated by C mediates which of the following special movements? opposition elevation dorsiflexion inversion
opposition Opposition is the movement which allows the touching of the thumb to the tip of each finger.
Most joints of the body are classified as ________ joints fibrous cartilaginous synovial immovable
Most joints of the body are classified as synovial joints
Which of the following is NOT a factor that contributes to joint stability amount of synovial fluid in the joint cavity amount of muscle tone applied to tendons that cross the joint shape of the articulating surfaces number and positioning of reinforcing ligaments
The amount of synovial fluid in the joint cavity is not a factor that contributes to joint stability. The major role of synovial fluid is to lubricate the joint surfaces of freely movable (synovial) joints.
The synovial membrane ________ lines the inside of the fibrous joint capsule reinforces the joints so that the opposing bones are not pulled apart covers and protects the articulating bone surfaces functions as a cushion between opposing bones
The synovial membrane lines the inside of the fibrous joint capsule and produces synovial fluid, which serves as a lubricant
Synovial fluid does NOT ________ reduce friction between the articular cartilages prevent the articulating bones from dislocating nourish the cartilage cells in the joint contain phagocytic cells
Synovial fluid does not contribute to joint stability, and thus does not prevent the articulating bones from dislocating (being pulled apart)
Which of the following is one difference between bursae and tendon sheaths? Bursae serve as cushioning fat pads between adjacent structures, while tendon sheaths reduce friction between adjacent structures. Bursae are only found in synovial joints, while tendon sheaths are only found in fibrous joints. Bursae contain a thin film of synovial fluid, while tendon sheaths lack synovial fluid altogether. Bursae are flattened fibrous sacs wedged between adjacent structures, while tendon sheaths are elongated fibrous sacs that wrap around tendons
Bursae are flattened fibrous sacs wedged between adjacent structures, while tendon sheaths are elongated fibrous sacs that wrap around tendons. Both bursae and tendon sheaths are associated with synovial joints, both reduce friction between adjacent structures, and both contain a thin film of synovial fluid.
Which of the following is CORRECTLY paired nonaxial movement: no movement biaxial joint: permits movement in one plane and around one axis multiaxial movement: movement in all three planes and around all three axes uniaxial joint: permits only slipping or gliding movements
Multiaxial joints, such as the shoulder and hip, permit movement in all three planes and around all three axes
Extension is an example of a(n) ________ movement angular gliding nonaxial rotational
Angular movements increase or decrease the angle between articulating bones. Extension is an angular movement that increases the angle between the articulating bones. Angular movements may occur in any plane of the body and include flexion, extension, hyperextension, abduction, adduction, and circumduction.
When a person makes a pinching motion with their thumb and forefinger they are performing a movement called ________ dorsiflexion retraction supination opposition elevation
The saddle joint between metacarpal I of the thumb and the trapezium allows a movement called opposition-the action taken when you touch your thumb to the tips of the other fingers on the same hand. It is opposition that makes the human hand such a fine tool for grasping and manipulating objects.
The shoulder and hip are examples of ________. pivot joints plane joints condylar joints hinge joints ball-and-socket joints
The shoulder and hip are examples of ball-and-socket joints.
Synovial joints are classified into six main categories based on ________. their location their size the amount of synovial fluid found in the joint cavity the shape of their articular surfaces
Based on the shape of their articular surfaces, which in turn determine the movements allowed, synovial joints can be classified into six major categories: plane, hinge, pivot, condylar (or ellipsoid), saddle, and ball-and-socket joints.
Which ligament would one tap to generate the knee-jerk reflex tibial collateral ligament oblique popliteal ligament anterior cruciate ligament patellar ligament
By tapping the patellar ligament, which connects the patella (kneecap) to the tibia, one can test the knee-jerk reflex. Stretching the patellar ligament in turn stretches the quadriceps tendon and muscle, triggering the stretch reflex that results in contraction of the quadriceps and extension (jerking) of the knee.
Which of the following is NOT a muscle of the rotator cuff? subscapularis muscle biceps brachii muscle infraspinatus muscle supraspinatus muscle teres minor muscle
The biceps brachii is not one of the four rotator cuff muscles.
The MAIN contributors to hip joint stability are __________ the bulky hip and thigh muscles surrounding the joint the rotator cuff muscles the deep socket of the joint and strong capsular ligaments the muscle tendons that cross the joint
The main contributor to hip joint stability is the deep socket of the joint and the strong capsular ligaments. Joints that have shallow sockets, such as the shoulder and jaw (temporomandibular) joints, are relatively unstable and more easily dislocated.
People who grind their teeth are likely to damage their ________. glenohumeral joint temporomandibular joints tibiofemoral joint coxal joint
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders often afflict people who grind their teeth, but can also result from jaw trauma or poor occlusion of the teeth. The TMJ is formed by the articulation between the temporal bone and mandible.
The origin of a muscle is attached to the movable bone. True False
The origin is attached to the immovable or less movable bone; the insertion is attached to the movable bone.
If a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is not properly repaired, the consequences could include the inability to prevent ________. medial rotation of an extended knee lateral rotation of an extended knee forward sliding of the tibia on the femur forward sliding of the femur
The ACL extends from the anterior intercondylar notch of the femur to the anterior intercondylar eminence of the tibia. This ligament prevents the tibia from being pushed too far anterior relative to the femur.
To realign an anteriorly dislocated Temporomandibular joint (TMJ), a physician must push the mandible inferiorly and posteriorly in order to move the mandibular condyle past the temporal bone's ________. mandibular fossa articular tubercle articular capsule articular disc
A tubercle is a round nodule or bumpy outgrowth from the main body of a bone. This tubercle forms the anterior boundary of the mandibular fossa
Which of the following is NOT a structural feature of synovial joints? a fluid-filled joint cavity bone ends united by fibrocartilage bone ends covered with hyaline cartilage reinforcing ligaments
In synovial joints, bone ends are covered, but not united with cartilage. Hyaline (articular) cartilage covers the bone ends. The fibrocartilage found in some synovial joints, such as the knee joint, provides additional cushioning between opposing bone ends.
What is the most important stabilizing factor for most synovial joints? synovial fluid muscle tone the shape of the articular surfaces the size of the reinforcing ligaments
For most synovial joints, especially the knee and shoulder, the muscle tendons that cross the joint are the most important stabilizing factor. These tendons are kept taut at all times by muscle tone, constant, partial contraction of their muscles.
Which type of joint allows opposition? saddle joint hinge joint condylar joint pivot joint
The saddle joint between metacarpal I and the trapezium allows a movement called opposition of the thumb-the action taken when you touch your thumb to the tips of the other fingers on the same hand. It is opposition that makes the human hand such a fine tool for grasping and manipulating objects.
Which joint in the body is most susceptible to sports injuries? shoulder elbow knee wrist
the knees are most susceptible to sports injuries because of their high reliance on non-articular factors for stability and the fact that they carry the body's weight. The knee can absorb a vertical force equal to nearly seven times body weight. However, it is very vulnerable to horizontal blows, such as those that occur during blocking and tackling in football and in ice hockey.
Which joint has sacrificed stability to provide great freedom of movement? elbow ankle shoulder knee
shoulder joint, stability has been sacrificed to provide the most freely moving joint in the body. The articulating bones provide minimal joint stability because of the size and "fit" of the articulating surfaces. The major stabilizing forces are soft tissue, in particular the tendons of the rotator cuff muscles (via muscle tone).
In a sprain, the ________ of a joint are stretched or torn. muscles bones tendons ligaments
In a sprain, the ligaments that reinforce a joint are stretched or torn
Which of the following is CORRECTLY matched? tendonitis: inflammation of the joint osteoarthritis: chronic degenerative joint disease gout: inflammation of the tendons bursitis: urate crystals in the joint
Osteoarthritis is a common, chronic degenerative joint disease often called "wear-and-tear arthritis.
Which inflammatory joint disease is caused by the bites of ticks that live on mice and deer? rheumatoid arthritis gouty arthritis lyme disease bursitis
Lyme disease is an inflammatory disease caused by the spirochete bacteria transmitted by the bites of ticks that live on mice and deer. It often results in joint pain and arthritis.
A person who has been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis would be suffering loss of the synovial fluids. True False
Extracapsular ligaments stabilizing the knee include ________. cruciate ligaments, which help secure the articulating bones together the oblique popliteal crossing the knee anteriorly the patellar ligament extending from femur to patella lateral and medial collateral ligaments preventing lateral or medial angular movements
lateral and medial collateral ligaments preventing lateral or medial angular movements
The cruciate ligaments of the knee ________. prevent hyperextension of the knee attach to each other in their midportions are also called collateral ligaments tend to run parallel to one another