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Winds, Air Masses, Fronts and Storms Vocab.
Terms in this set (62)
any material (i.e. liquid or a gas) that can flow and that takes the shape of its container.
The boundary between two different air masses.
A huge body of air that forms over a region that has similar temperature, humidity, and air pressure at any given height.
high pressure system
A region in which the atmospheric pressure is higher than in the surrounding areas. Brings fair weather.
low pressure system
An area where the atmospheric pressure is lowest compared to the surrounding area. Storms are called low pressure cells. Low pressure causes air to rise, usually makes cloudy, wet, windy weather.
Any disturbance in the atmosphere resulting in severe weather. Usually strong wind,, thunder, lightening and heavy precipition.
A sonic shock wave produced by rapidly expanding air along and within a bolt of lightening, due to increased pressure and temperature.
An electostatic discharge from cloud to cloud or from cloud to earth accompanied by the emission of light.
A weather phenomena resulting from rapid upward movement of warm, moist air iinside air masses or at fronts.
A localized and violently destructive windstorm occurring over land characterized by a rotating column of air (funnel-shaped) cloud that is in contact with the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud.
A large, powerful windstorm that forms over warm ocean waters. Typically forms in the Atlantic Ocean and uses warm water as it's fuel.
An offshore rise of water caused primarily by high winds pushing on the ocean's surface which force the water to pile up higher than normal seal level. Caused by strong winds from a storm, such as those from a hurricane.
Massive tropical storm that forms over large bodies of warm ocean water; low pressure system surrounded by rotating thunderstorms. Produces strong winds, heavy rain, high waves, damaging storm surge and spawning tornadoes.
A tropical cyclone occurring in the western Pacific or Indian oceans.
A huge body of air that has similar temperature, humidity, and air pressure at any given height.
high pressure system
A region in which the atmospheric pressure is higher than in the surrounding areas.
A violent disturbance in the atmosphere resulting in severe weather.
The sound produced by rapidly expanding air along the path of a lightning discharge.
Abrupt electric discharge from cloud to cloud or from cloud to earth accompanied by the emission of light.
A storm resulting from strong, moist, rising air currents inside air masses or at fronts.
A localized and violently destructive windstorm occurring over land characterized by a funnel-shaped cloud extending toward the ground.
A large, powerful windstorm that forms over warm ocean waters.
this type of air is more dense so it sinks, molecules are close together
this type of air is less dense so it rises, molecules are not close together
Another name for a hurricane
Maritime Tropical & Polar, Continental Tropical & Polar
4 types of air masses
this air mass is warm and moist
this air mass is cold and moist
this air mass is warm and dry
this air mass is cold and dry
this front is fast moving, takes over a slow moving warm air mass; can cause thunderstorms; cool, clear weather to follow
this front is fast moving, takes over a slow moving cold air mass; warm, humid weather follows
this front happens when a cold and warm air mass meet and neither can move the other; can cause precipitation and clouds
this front happens when a warm air mass is caught between two cold air masses; precipitation can occur
direction of their winds
the difference between a high pressure system and a low pressure system
high pressure system
brings dry, clear weather; cold air sinks and spins clockwise. Known also as Anticyclone.
low pressure system
brings storm and precipitation; warm air rises and spins counterclockwise around the center. Known as Cyclone.
this storm is associated with a funnel cloud
Midwest region of US is referred by this name
this will form within cumulonimbus clouds under these conditions (hot, humid afternoons or when a fast moving warm front over takes a slower cold front)
these can typically form only over water that is at least 80 degrees F
eye of a hurricane
light winds and fair weather is typical in this location
west to east by prevailing westerlies and jet streams
how do air masses move over the continental United States
west to east
direction that prevailing westerlies push air masses
In what type of storm should you seek shelter indoors, away from objects that conduct electricity; if outside, find a low lying area and lay down
In what type of storm should you seek shelter indoors in a basement or lowest level of house; away from windows and glass doors
instrument used to measure wind speed
these move over short distances caused by heating of a small area of the earth's surface
these move over long distances
Because of this, winds turn to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere due to the earth's rotation
when there is very little wind at the equator due to warm air rising
occurs during the day; is cool and blows from the sea to the land
occurs at night; is cool and blows from teh land to the sea
this occurs because unequal heating of the Earth's surface and the rising and sinking motion of air (convection currents)
any solid or liquid that falls from clouds (rain, snow, sleet, hail)
these are caused by the rising and sinking motion of air
wind belts that extend from the poles to 60° latitude in both hemispheres. They form as cold, sinking air moves away from teh poles. They can carry cold arctic air over the US which can produce snow and freezing weather.
wind belts found between 30° and 60° latitude in both hemispheres. They blow toward the poles from west to east. These winds can carry moist air across the US producing rain and snow.
these blow from 30° latitude almost to the equator in both hemispheres. They curve to the west as they blow toward the equator.
Polar easterlies, prevailing westerlies, trade winds and doldrums
Earth's major wind belts (4)
the study of the atmosphere and weather
strong winds and rains with low pressure system that spins counterclockwise and forms over water are characteristics of this storm
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