World War 2 Study Guide
Terms in this set (74)
A policy of making concessions to an aggressor in the hopes of avoiding war. Associated with Neville Chamberlain's policy of making concessions to Adolf Hitler.
1941 law that authorized the president to aid any nation whose defense he believed was vital to American security
Office of War Mobilization
Federal agency formed to coordinate issues related to war production during WWII
League of Nations
A world organization established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace. It was first proposed in 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson, although the United States never joined the League. Essentially powerless, it was officially dissolved in 1946.
"My Struggle"-a book written by Adolf Hitler during his imprisonment in 1923-1924, in which he set forth his beliefs and his goals for Germany
Germanic people seen as the master race
The area near Czechoslovakia that was mainly German ethnicity that Germany took.
code name for the secret United States project set up in 1942 to develop atomic bombs for use in World War II
Japanese suicide pilots who loaded their planes with explosives and crashed them into American ships.
Executive Order 9066
2/19/42; 112,000 Japanese-Americans forced into camps causing loss of homes & businesses, 600K more renounced citizenship; demonstrated fear of Japanese invasion
Groups of merchant ships protected by warships
Navajo Code Talkers
Native Americans from the Navajo tribe used their own language to make a code for the U.S. military that the Japanese could not decipher
Adolf Hitler used fascism to create this type of government based on totalitarian ideas and was used to unite Germany during the 1930s.
German republic founded after the WWI and the downfall of the German Empire's monarchy.
War Production board-decided which companies would convert from peacetime to wartime production
7:50-10:00 AM, December 7, 1941 - Surprise attack by the Japanese on the main U.S. Pacific Fleet harbored in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii destroyed 18 U.S. ships and 200 aircraft. American losses were 3000, Japanese losses less than 100. In response, the U.S. declared war on Japan and Germany, entering World War II.
Battle of Stalingrad ( possible turning point in the war)
Unsuccessful German attack on the city of Stalingrad during World War II from 1942 to 1943, that was the furthest extent of German advance into the Soviet Union. This made Germany fully retreat and
Battle of Bulge
December, 1944-January, 1945 - After recapturing France, the Allied advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed a 30 mile "bulge" into the Allied lines. The Allies stopped the German advance and threw them back across the Rhine with heavy losses.
Battle of Leyte Gulf
1944 World War II naval battle betweeen the United States and Japan. Largest naval engagement in history. Japaneze navy was defeated.
Battle of Britain
An aerial battle fought in World War II in 1940 between the German Luftwaffe (air force), which carried out extensive bombing in Britain, and the British Royal Air Force, which offered successful resistance.
Battle of Guadalcanal
(1942-1943) World War II battle in the Pacific; it represented the first Allied counter-attack against Japanese forces; Allied victory forced Japanese forces to abandon the island
Battle of Coral Sea (very important)
A battle between Japanese and American naval forces that stopped the Japanese advance on Australia. Coral Sea was important for several reasons. It was the first pure carrier-versus-carrier battle in history as neither surface fleet sighted the other. Though a draw, it was an important turning point in the war in the Pacific because, for the first time, the Allies had stopped the Japanese advance.
Battle of Midway
1942 World War II battle between the United States and Japan, a turning point in the war in the Pacific. Japan's plan was to attack and then assault the two islands that make up the Midway islands.They reasoned that the U.S. Navy could not tolerate such an operation so close to its base in Hawaii, and he believed—correctly, as it happened—that what was left of the U.S. Pacific Fleet would sortie from Pearl Harbor and expose itself to the power of his carrier force and his most powerful battleships. Yamamoto(admiral) wanted his carriers, led by Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo, to ambush any American carriers and surface ships that ventured to contest the Japanese attack and assault on Midway. Instead, he was ambushed by the three U.S. carriers—Yorktown, Enterprise, and Hornet—that had steamed north and west from Hawaii. In just one day—4 June 1942—Admiral Nagumo lost his four carriers to the air units of his American opponents, while U.S. naval forces lost only one carrier (Yorktown) in return.
A city in northern France on the North Sea where in World War II (1940) 330,000 Allied troops had to be evacuated from the beaches at Dunkirk in a desperate retreat under enemy fire.
a bloody and prolonged operation on the island of Iwo Jima in which American marines landed and defeated Japanese defenders (February and March 1945)
The U.S. Army in the Pacific had been pursuing an "island-hopping" campaign, moving north from Australia towards Japan. On April 1, 1945, they invaded Okinawa, only 300 miles south of the Japanese home islands. By the time the fighting ended on June 2, 1945, the U.S. had lost 50,000 men and the Japanese 100,000.
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
Austrian-born founder of the German Nazi Party and chancellor of the Third Reich (1933-1945). His fascist philosophy, embodied in Mein Kampf (1925-1927), attracted widespread support, and after 1934 he ruled as an absolute dictator. Hitler's pursuit of aggressive nationalist policies resulted in the invasion of Poland (1939) and the subsequent outbreak of World War II. His regime was infamous for the extermination of millions of people, especially European Jews. He committed suicide when the collapse of the Third Reich was imminent (1945).
Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communists after 1924, and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial production and terror to crush opposition
Italian fascist dictator (1883-1945)
(HT) , 1947, President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey
..., Roosevelt, the President of the United States during the Depression and WWII. He instituted the New Deal. Served from 1933 to 1945, he was the only president in U.S. history to be elected to four terms
The 34th President of the United States from 1953 until 1961. He was a five-star general in the United States Army during World War II and served as Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Forces in Europe
The tuskegee airmen
The Tuskegee Airmen is the popular name of a group of African-American military pilots (fighter and bomber) who fought in World War II.
He was the 124 emperor of japan during WW11
Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman was an American politician who served as the 33rd President of the United States, coming to office on the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt in the last months of World War II.
He was a senior British Army officer who fought in both the First World War and the Second World War
Douglas MacArthur was an American five-star general and field marshal of the Philippine Army. He was Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and played a prominent role in the Pacific theater during World War II.
Eisenhower planned to strike at Normandy, they set up a dummy army to fake out Hitler, it looked like it would attack French Seaport of Calais. The invasion of Normandy was the largest land and sea attack in history. It started on June 6, 1944. It was known as D-Day: British, American, French, Canadian troops fought their way onto 60 mile beach. Germans sheltered behind 3 feet thick concrete walls. The Allies took heavy casualties.
Prejudice against Jews
Final solution of the Jewish question-murder of every single Jew-had begun-mass arresting, and trafficking of Jews to the concentration camps-mass killings occurred as well in the gas chambers
Deliberate elimination of a group through mass murder.
camps used under the rule of Hitler in Nazi Germany for the purpose of killing prisoners immediately.
"Night of Broken Glass" -the night of November 9, 1938, on which Nazi troopers attacked Jewish homes, businesses, and synagogues throughout Germany
prison camps used under the rule of Hitler in Nazi Germany. Conditions were inhuman, and prisoners, mostly Jewish people, were generally starved or worked to death, or killed immediately.
a system of government that is centralized and dictatorial and requires complete subservience to the state.
Fascism is a form of government which is a type of one-party dictatorship. Fascists are against liberal democracy. They work for a totalitarian one-party state. ... Such a state is led by a strong leader—such as a dictator and a martial government
an intense military campaign intended to bring about a swift victory. (by the germans)
the state of being confined as a prisoner, especially for political or military reasons.
Why did the germans resent the Treaty of Versailles?
The main reasons why the Germans hated the Treaty of Versailles was because they thought it was unfair. Germany had not taken part in the Conference. The terms were imposed upon Germany - when Germany disagreed, the Allies threatened to go to war again. They also had to pay for all the repremands of WW1
What was europe like between WW1 and WW11
Germany was in depression and most of europe was trying to repair damages from WW1
Why was the non-agression pact important?
It ensured that the Sovit union and Germany would not be in a combat situation with each other but eentually this did not work out and the soviets joined the allied side.
Why did Japan know that was with the US was inevitable?
Because they were so close in proximity and the small islands in the pacific would be crucial area when the us joined becuase of the attack they were planing
What were the important events leading to japan expanding its empire
When they attacked china, and all the other small islands in the pacific area
Germany, Japan, Italy
U.S., Britain, France, Canada, China,
Why is it important the the allies have control of the atlantic ocean?
If the allies have control over the atlantic, when they fly over it they are in their own sky and don´t have to worry about enimes in their waters
Why is North Africa important to control
If you have control over N. Africa then you have control over the seas between europe and africa
Why was Normandy chosen for D-Day
Because it was a least likely spot of attack so they made the german army think they were going somewhere else using a fake army to lead them away from Normandy.
What were the 5 beaches at Normandy
Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno, and Sword.
What territories did japan attack after peral habor
Malaya, the Philippines, Thailand and Burma. Then, in June 1942, the Japanese attacked the Aleutian Islands.
Describe the Battan death March
U.S. surrender of the Bataan Peninsula on the main Philippine island of Luzon to the Japanese, approximately 75,000 Filipino and American troops on Bataan were forced to make an arduous 65-mile march to prison camps. Where most died due to hunger, dehydration, or being beaten to death by japanese soliders.
Why was island hopping a important strategy in Americas victory over Japan?
The American Army took control of those small islands in the pacific, and quickly constructed landing strips and small military bases. Then they proceeded to attack other islands from the bases they had established. Slowly the US army moved closer to Japan, taking control of many of the surrounding islands. These island helped the army in big number so now every time they needed supplies the army did not have to fly all the way to Hawaii.
Why was the desion made to drop atomic bombs on Japan without warning them.
By August, 1945, Japan had lost World War II. Japan and the United States both knew it. How long would it be, however, before Japan surrendered? Japan was split between surrender or fighting to the end. They chose to fight.
The atomic bomb was the solution, As president, it was Harry Truman's decision if the weapon would be used with the goal to end the war.
President Truman had four options: 1) continue conventional bombing of Japanese cities; 2) invade Japan; 3) demonstrate the bomb on an unpopulated island; or, 4) drop the bomb on an inhabited Japanese city. He chose to drop the bombs as to put a final stop to the war.
Why were Hiroshima and Nagasaki chosen as targets for the bombings?
Because on of the cities produced most of japans transportation vessels such as trains and planes and the other made ammunition.
How did Hollywood help in the war effort
They supplied fake tanks fro operation fortitude
How did americans help on the homefront
Anybody who was of age either joined the army or the workforce to help in the war effort. Unused or irrealvent factories would be turned into 24 hour war product related workplaces. People also bought war bond and lived off food stamps, americans gave blood and other things to the medical side of the war
What roles did women play during WW2
Most joined the workforce or the WAC or were nurses on the front lines
How were Japanese people treated after the Pearl Harbor attacks
President Roosevelt issued Executive Order No. 9066. The order forced over 110,000 Japanese Americans to leave their homes in California, Washington, and Oregon. They were sent to live in one of ten detention camps in desolate parts of the United States. They were treated disrepecfully and unfairly just because of something people of their fellow race did.
September 1, 1939
When the Germany army invaded Poland aka the start of WW11
December 7, 1941
The Japanese attack of Pearl Harbor
June 6, 1944
May 8, 1945
Victory in Europe Day, generally known as V-E Day, was the holiday celebrated on 8 May 1945 to mark the formal acceptance by the Allies of World War II of Nazi Germany's unconditional surrender of its armed forces.
August 15, 1945
V-J day or victory over japan day, a holiday to mark japan´s surrender in WW11