85 terms

Yarns

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yarn
a group of fibers twisted together to form a continuous strand
simple yarns
uniform size and regular appearance. most yearns used today.
spun yarns
composed of short lengths of fibers (staple) twisted/spun together
Opening/Picking
loosens and blends same type of fibers from different packages to create uniform quality for natural fibers
lap
opening/picking made into continuous wide/flattened layer of fibers
carding
fibers brushed/straightened to become more/less parallel to each other (blending may also take place)
carded sliver
loose rope like strand about 1" diameter
ring spinning
slower, more expensive process to produce stronger and finer yarns. max delivery rate 100 ft/min
open-ended spinning
faster, cheaper process to produce coarser yarns, less aligned. twist added by rotating yarn ends (NO ROVING)
combing
*optional process to extract shorter fibers and continue to align the longer fibers (more expensive than carded)
combed sliver
combed yarns made into loose rope-like strand
woolen yarns
wool carded yarns
worsted yarns
wool combed yarns
drawing
the diameter is reduced strand becomes stronger
roving
optional *for ring spinning ONLY
further drawing out sliver and slightly twisting it
long fine strand 1/4" in diameter
spinning
roving further drawn out and given high twists
blending can take place
several fiber strands can be combined
air jet spinning
central core of staple fibers held together by tight surface staple fibers. twice as fast as open ended spinning. weaker
filament yarns
composed of continuous strand of filament fibers
smooth (flat) yarns
type of filament yarn, each filament lies straight and smooth within yarn. no crimp
textured yarns
type of filament yarn. modified shape of a filament yarn by adding artificial crimps. simulate natural spun yarns, bulkier improved comfort
stretch-textured yarn
can be stretched 30-50% of relaxed length
bulk-textured yarn/Bulk continuous filament (BCF)
high bulk, low stretch
false-twist texturing
MOST common method used today to texture yarn for apparel. twisted --> heat set -> untwisted
knife-edge (edge-crimping) texturing
filaments pulled over heated knife edge (ribbon and scissors)
gear-crimping texturing
crimped between rotating intermeshing gears. in the shape of gear teeth.
stuffer box texturing
fibers stuffed into heated box
air-jet texturing
bundle of yarns exposed to turbulent streams of air which cause loops within bundle
*only mechanical action is used to entangle fibers NO heat
knit-de-knit texturing
yarns knitted into fabric. heat set or de-knit (unraveled)
twist-yarns
made by twisting together parallel fibers
direction of twist
yarn held vertically. NOT element of quality. only affects surface appearance
S twist
spirals downward/right
Z twist
spirals run downward and left
degree of twist
amount of twist in yarn measured by turns/inch (TPI)
SPUN
degree of twist in ____ yarns influences strength of yarn. increasing twist will bind fibers tightly. prevents fiber slippage under tension
SPUN
degree of twist in ____ yarns influences appearance of yarn. twisting will make yarn less bulky --> thinner
FILAMENT
twist in ____ yarns have no effect
SPUN
ranges of twist in ____ yarns low twist (soft) 2-12 tpi. softer.bulkier
SPUN
ranges of twist in ____ yarns high twist (hard) 20-30 tpi. smoother. firmer. provide best all purpose performance properties.
FILAMENT Negligable
ranges of twist in ____ yarns. Also called ______.
0.5 - 1 tpi prevents fibers from flying apart during handling.
FILAMENT Crepe
ranges of twist in ____ yarns. also called _____ . 40-80 tpi. creates pebbly/rough surface effect
low
yarn only needs to be turned a few times to be untwisted. ____ degree twist
high
yarn needs to be turned many times to be untwisted. ____ degree twist
yarn size/number
yarns sold by pound. used to express relationship between a unit length and weight of yarns. reflects diameter or thickness of yarn
denier system
commonly used in US for filament yarns.
weight in grams of 9000 meters yarn. Direct system
higher
heavier yarns have a _______ denier number
tex system
weight in grams of 1000 meters yarn. used for BOTH filament and spun yarns. direct system. INTERNATIONAL measure
higher
the _____ the tex number, the heavier and thicker
yarn count system
for spun yarns. indirect system
heavier, lower
_____ spun yarns --> ______ yarn count
single yarns SPUN
one strand of fibers tightly twisted together
monofilament yarns
a single yarn contains only 1 fiber (ex sheer hosiery, fishing line, rubber band)
multifilament yarns
a number of filament fibers in a strand twisted together
ply yarns
2 or more single yarns twisted together
cord yarns
some number of ply yarns twisted together
single
identifying: untwist. if you see one strand of parallel staple/filament fibers it is a _____ yarn
ply OR cord
identifying: untwist. if you see 2 more more strands of parallel staple/filament fibers its a ______ yarn
ply
identifying: take out 1 strand of ply OR cord and untwist. if you see 1 strand of parallel fibers its a ___ yarn
cord
identifying: take out 1 strand of ply OR cord and untwist. if you see 2 or more strands of parallel fibers its a ___ yarn
alternates (S, Z, S...)
with each successive step, the direction of twist
won't slip as easily, stronger
advantages of ply yarn yarns in SPUN yarns
uniform
advantages of ply yarn yarns diameter more _____
pill
advantages of ply yarns: yarns have a reduced tendency to ______.
compound yarns. Core, wrap
composed of 2 or more strands. one forms ___ the other the ___ (covering)
covered yarns
consist of a core surrounded by one or more wrap yarns
elastic core
rubber or spandex core, spun or filament wrap
1.protect (more durable)
2.dyeing (increase aesthetics)
3. elongation (firmer shape)
purpose of covering elastic core:
1. ____ the core
2. increase _____ ability
3. control ______
hard fiber core
not stretchy, filament core/spun wrap
strength, wrap spun
purpose of hard fiber core:
improve ___ of the ___ ___ yarn
core-spun yarn
core wrapped by fibers (advantages of both core and wrap
Filament core/Staple fibers wrap
example of ____
spandex filament core/cotton staple fiber wrap
Filament core/Staple fibers wrap
example of _____
polyester filament core/combed staple cotton wrap
stripped off, coverage
problems with filament/staple yarns
1. staple wrap is easily ______
2. incomplete ____ of the core
staple core/staple wrap
core wrapped completely/tightly
color core totally covered, better appearance
staple core/filament wrap
aesthetics and comfort from core
durability from wrap
100% stronger than spun yarns same size
fancy/novelty yarns
irregularities deliberately produced during formation. effect yarns does NOT completely or tightly cover core, loosely wrapped. MOST expensive
less durable
less _____ because alter evenness of surface, low abrasion resistance, generate snagging
spiral/corkscrew
2 yarns with different sizes twisted together
bouclé/loop
effect yarn spirals around core and loops out at intervals
nub/slash
effect yarn twists around core yarn several times in one spot, enlarged bump created
larger, shorter//longer, thinner
nub bump is ___ in size and ____ in length
slash bump is ____ and _____
slub
single/ply yarn twisted together with varying degree of twists along fiber length
thicker, thinner
areas w/ less twist in slub is ______
w/ more twist _____
chenille
caterpillar, soft pile surface
metallic
produced by aluminum foil or powder, supported by one or more filament yarns
1. base/core strand
2. effect strand
3. binder strand
component of fancy yarn:
1. __________ - provides structure & strength
2. __________ - creates decorative detail
3. __________ - used to tie effect and base strand if binding is necessary. sometimes effect yarn held by 2 binder yarns instead of base/core and binder.
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