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Terms in this set (70)
Basic concepts of Judaism
Politics and Prophecy in the Roman Empire
The Restored Kingdom
A New Spiritual Law
The Reunion of Jew and Gentile
Greco-Roman Religion - the Gods
Polytheism (belief in many gods)
Myth (no scripture, myths instead)
Fate (emphasizes fate)
Greco-Roman Religion - Religion
Sacrifices (animal and libations)
Priesthood, Temples, Prayers
Festivals (religious festivals)
Greco-Roman Religion - the Origins of the Gods
Daimones (Demons - good or ill, cannot be seen)
Christianity - Basic Doctrines in the Nicene Creed
Separates them from Judaism
1. The One God: Father, Son, Holy Spirit (monotheistic, but three persons in one God)
2. Mystery of the Incarnation
3. Salvation by Christ (to the point of the resurrection of the dead)
4.Entry into the Church
5. Baptism (sacrements)
Christianity - Important Concepts
Christ as Messiah
The Kingdom of God
Universal Mission of Christianity
The Reunion of Jew and Gentile
Christianity - Christian Critique of Idolatry
The "so-called" gods
The "cups of demons"
The "elemental spirits"
These are all from Paul
Chief differences of Judaism and Christianity
Judaism - the Messiah has come
Christianity - the Messiah as not come
Philosophical Critique of Christianity - Pliny the Younger (district governer)
Christianity as a Political Club (benefit society)
a. professional organizations - had power, provided opportunities for people to meet, talk politics/economy
b. funerary societies
c. religious societies
Christianity as Superstition
a. foreign deities
b. impiety (failure of duty)
c. anti-social (not conforming or going with the flow)
Philosophical Critique of Christianity - Tacitus and Galen
Philosophical Schools in Antiquity
Christianity as a School of Philosophy
a. Way of Life
b. Moral discipline
c. Sage (sophos)
Philosophical Critique of Christianity - Celsus, True Doctrine
Jesus merely a magician
Strange and capricious God
Lack of tradition
Philosophical Critique of Christianity - Porphyry, Against the Christians (attack the accuracy of the Bible)
Historical Criticism of the Book of Daniel
Mistakes in the New Testament
Jesus a Pagan Sage
No Universal Way
Philosophical Critique of Christianity - Julian the Apostate, Against the Galileans
Christians not Believers ("Atheism")
Jesus not God (John and the Synoptic Gospels)
Christians Misunderstood Myth
Christians are Jewish Apostates
Christians do not Offer Sacrifice
Christianity and Neo-Platonism Compared
God and the Trinity
Cosmology (Heaven, Earth, Underworld)
a. visible gods
d. Olympic Gods
e. The One (God)
Islam and Islamic Mysticism - The Foundations
B. The Qur'ān (their Bible)
C. The Hadīth
Islam and Islamic Mysticism - The Foundations (5 Pillars of Islam)
1. The Confession of Faith
4. Fasting during Ramadan
5. Pilgrimage to Mecca
Islam and Islamic Mysticism - Abrahamic Faiths
A. People of the Book
B. Jews and Mary in the Qur'ān
C. New Research on the Origins of Islam
Islam and Islamic Mysticism - Abrahamic Faiths (Islamic Traditions)
Islam and Islamic Mysticism - The Threefold Structure of Sufism
Islam and Islamic Mysticism - "Sufism"
4. Contentment (patience and gratitude)
5. Fear and Hope
Islam and Islamic Mysticism - "Sufism"
Islam and Islamic Mysticism - The Methods of Sufism
1. The Spiritual Director
2. Asceticism: Fasting, Vigils, Retreats
3. Meditation (prayer, recollection, "hearing"
Religions of India - Historical background
The Problem of Prester John and the Eastern Paradise
First Contacts: Mongolia, India, Philippines, Japan, China
The Great Religions of India
Hinduism - Hindu Scriptures (Revelation)
Hinduism - Hindu Scriptures (Written Works)
Hinduism - Four Levels of Being
A. Brahman (the Highest Absolute, the One)
B. īśvara (God, "the Lord" or Intellect)
C. Hiranya-garbha (Lit. "Golden Egg," Spirit or the World-Soul)
D. Virāj (Cosmos)
Hinduism - The Basic Concepts
A. Ātman ("Self")
Hinduism - The Basic Concepts (Philosophy: Dharma, Yoga, Moksa)
1. Māyā (Illusion)
2. Avidyā (Ignorance)
3. Karma (Action)
4. Moksa (Ātman=Brahman)
The Acts of the Buddha
1. Birth of the Buddha
2. Asita's Prophecy
3. The Four Sights
5. Enlightenment (the "Four Watches")
7. Death and Parinirvāna and Death
8. Worship of the Relics
One who escapes the cycle
Enlightened one, or awakened one - title like Christ
First watch - recollected the successive series of his former births
Second watch - rebirths depend on their deeds
Third watch - recognizes that where there is no ignorance and no karma, there is no rebirth (can't find a self - Anatman)
The Three Jewels
B. Mahāyana Scriptures
Three Marks of Existence - Suffering
Everything is marked by suffering (pain, depression, anguish)
Subtle - wanting more, what you want is not being fulfilled
Three Marks of Existence - Impermanence
Depends on the first
Everything is not permanent (except Brama and Atmond)
If you can move past the body than Atmond is Brama and you can achieve liberation
Three Marks of Existence - No-Self
No permanent anchor that you can find to allow you to escape suffering
No self in your heart
Four Noble Truths - All is Suffering
Cycle and illusion - What you think will be pleasurable, will be suffering
Four Noble Truths - Suffering has a cause
Karma - our actions
If you are angry, you will be reborn in hell
If you are greedy, you will be reborn as a ghost
If you are proud, you will be reborn as a god
Four Noble Truths - Suffering has an end or cessation
End of the cycle (nirvana - extinguishing of self)
Reason we seek fulfillment is because we mistakenly believe that there is that Self
Four Noble Truths - There is a Path to End Suffering
Wisdom - Right view, Right Intention
Ethics - Right speech, right action, right livelihood
Mental discipline - right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration
Three religions of China
Confucianism, Daoism, Buddhism
Problems Posed by Chinese Antiquity
Primogeniture of Moses - everything that was found in Greek philosophy was found in moses
Dating of Scripture
Chinese Rites and Terms Controversy
Provides the focus of how Europeans embrace their own religion
Everyone had an opinion in this controversy
Difficult to translate into other languages
The Controversy Over the "Rites"
What is religious and what is superstitious?
a. Greeks and Romans thought religion might be a superstition. Debated whether a number of Chinese rituals were religious or superstitious. Iteration of ancestors. Chinese tended to have plaques in their homes to commemorate their ancestors and burn incense for them on special occasion. Constantine Emperor said they are civic rituals. Rituals done for the good of the state, no broader religious meaning
The Controversy over the "Terms"
1. Does "Heaven" mean God?
a. Tian - heaven and sky. Confucianism focuses on heaven, the ruler, and the individual. Deities that appeared to play the role of father God.
Does "the Lord of Heaven" mean God?
a. Jesuits tried to come up with a new term. Tian zhu means Lord of Heaven
The Special Problem of Confucianism: Is it a religion or a philosophy?
Fascinated the Jesuits. It puts the definition of religion up for grabs, this used to be said about Buddhism. Difficult because if it is a religion, it doesn't have the aspects of religion but it is seeking a will of heaven for the nation and the people.
Kongzi and the Analects (long series of moral maxims)
Latin form - Confucious
The Confucian "Classics" (Set of works)
Not identified as the word of God/heaven. They form the basis of Confucian for the government and elite.
The Confucian "Classics" (Set of works) - The Book of Changes, Songs, History, Rites
Four great books.
Changes - manual for determining the way of foreign and difficult affairs
Songs - recounts music
Rituals - appropriate sacrifices that can be done. Sense is that you need to perform certain sacrifices and you need to perform them at important times, otherwise society will collapse
History - early empire of China
The Confucian "Classics" (Set of works) - The Spring and Autumn Annals
Recent act of Chinese history
Thought to be a height of Chinese culture for Confucians. It plays a role like ancient Greece for western imagination. Ideal government, virtue, philosophy, ideal person.
Confucian Philosophy - The problem of Human Nature (chief problem)
What humans are, what they can be, what it means to live well.
Has to address whether human nature is fundamentally good or bad.
Fail to live up to our natures and bring evil into the world. Or, human nature is fundamentally evil and we have to be educated to be good.
Confucian Philosophy - The "Rectification" of Names (clarification of terms)
Great number of human nature is because we aren't aware of the language we are using
Heaven and the gods
Status of heaven at the time, confucianism believes that there are gods. The heaven is ultimate and the gods inhabit the world.
The Confucian Virtues
Powers are cultivated, not just a feeling.
It is an active habit..
Different roles at different times in their lives.
The Confucian Virtues - Benevolence or Humaneness
Virtues begin with humaneness, the basic ability to recognize the needs of others, feelings towards others.
Ability that recognizes that other people have needs, basic awareness of the humanity of other people
The Confucian Virtues - Righteousness or Justice
Justice means fair play. The skill of recognizing what other people need, making sure that they get it, and being fair about it. One has the power to determine what is fair, and to bring it about to the best of their ability.
Morally upright, doesn't break rules.
The Confucian Virtues - Ritual Etiquette
Always know the right thing to say.
Ritual etiquette - know which rituals to perform when.
Additional level of understanding proper rituals (home rituals, funerals)
The Confucian Virtues - Knowledge
Through the practice of righteousness and etiquette, one can see the world. How to act, how to rule.
Based on the first three virtues.
Real knowledge of the world starts to rise due to the understanding of rituals.
The Confucian Virtues - Integrity
True to end one's word, integration to ones actions - trustworthy.
One can act appropriately, strongly, humanely, justly, ritual etiquette, knowledge. End goal is a genuine integrity as one's role in life.
With this knowledge, you develop true integrity and become a "whole person"
The Gentleman and the Sage (Goal of the Confucian religion)
To be a gentleman, to be an aristocrat. Expected to play music, write well, expert calligrapher. Confucius makes it clear that he is not a sage, the goal is to be a gentleman. Sage is a mythical being, a being of a different order, a being who has perfected being a human being that he practically has magical powers.
Emphasis of Confucianism is the cultivation of virtues that help one play the roles that one needs to in societies. (virtue ethics) Virtues are skills, virtue means a power to act.
Complete opposite of Confucianism
Laozi and the Daodejing
Associated with Laozi - The old master.
Mystical document - classic of the way and the power, or the way and its virtue
Daoism basic concepts - Way
One needs to discover the way - one will discover power, virtue
Daoism basic concepts - Power/Virtue
Discover the power and the virtue.
No way to cultivate virtue.
Daoism basic concepts - Ineffability
Cant be spoken, can't be taught directly.
Daoism basic concepts - Recollection
Requires a mystical recollection of always calling oneself back to ones fundamental nature.
Passive in nature
Daoism basic concepts - Non-Action
Teaches how to act in society, passive (non-acting)
Learn only by non-action, drawing yourself away from all activity. Not training, its recollection and meditation
Daoism basic concepts - Darkness and brightness
Back to nature, discover the true nature, proper balance between yin and yang in you (light and darkness)
Institutions are the problem, conservative.