135 terms

Dance Midterm

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Court ballet were developed
beginning in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries
Renaissance period saw
rise of ballet as a professional art form
Romantic ballet occurred
during the nineteenth century
Primary reason that choreographer create a work
they want to communicate something to their audience
Aesthetic Sense
perceiving something through feelings
Aesthetic Experience
feelings evoked from a viewing a work of art
Dance in the Medieval Period
-Most Europe, the church saw dance as a pagan activity
-dance was banned unless it gloried the church
Dance in Renaissance Period
-renewed interest in the arts developed
-dance become less of a group activity and more about the individual artists
-court ballet flourished and folk dancing remained popular with the working class
-ballet emerged as a professional art form
Choreographer
person who utilizes the medium of dance (movement) to make his or her art; through the use of movement and by manipulating the elements of space, time and energy, the choreographer creates a work of art in the form of a dance
Something
can be a very specific thought, feelings, emotion, or a story that the choreographer wishes the audience to connect with and respond to
Movement to movement sake
choose abstract concept to work with that do not necessarily have a specific themes or story lines
Passion
important attributes for a choreographer to posses
Choreographers use movement to convey
thought or message is easier than speaking about the subject
What choreographer use to inspire them?
Own life experience, the experience of others, current events, their view of the world and the human condition
Creative process
thought to be directly linked to the choreographer subconscious mind
Choreographer manipulate the elements
space, time and energy
Category of space
elements of shape/line, level, direction, focus, points on the stage, floor patterns, depth/width, phrases and transitiosn
Line
referring the movement in ballet that be executed in a specific way in order for dancer to achieve the desired/ classic ballet shape.
"outward" focus
as if looking out beyond the horizon for a lost love
"inward" fous
which shows the concentration more on the self
Center Stage
powerful point on the stage, or the place that draws the most focus
Downstage
Space in front of center stage (toward audience)
Upstage
any space behind center stage (away from the audience)
Stage Right
Dancer perspective (as opposed to audience) any space on the right
Stage Left
Dancer perspective (as opposed to audience) any space on the left
Floor pattern
method by which the choreographer moves the dancers around the stage space
Depth and width
stage space to create specific designs, show symmetry, asymmetry , distance and closeness
Category of time
elements of speed/tempo, pulse/underlying beat, rhythmic pattern, time signature/meter, no counts at all, breath/emotional phrasing, stillness and words/text/sounds/silence
Speed or temp
to how fast or slow the dancers are moving
Time Signature or Meter Reflects
numeric of beat to a measure
Duration, intensity and speed of each movement is determined by
the amount of energy and the degree of force used
Category of energy
dynamics and qualites
Dynamics
created when energy is used with time
Qualities
distinctly observable attribute or characteristics produced by dynamics and made manifest in movement
Movement qualities
Percussive, swinging, sustained, vibrating, and suspending
Dancer must be
discipline, dedication, and determination
technique
the proper placement and alignment of the dancer's body and how that dancer executes the movements
Dance Genres
modern, ballet, jazz, tap and world dance
Dancers should also be outstanding perofrmers
having the ability means that the dancers go beyond what is learned in technique class and bring the movement that they are performing to another level
Not enough for dancers to just "do steps"
incorporate their whole being into the movement and let the audience see the passion that drives them to dance
audience must think of themselves
as a participant and an equal partner in the event
Who is involved from the beginning of the creative process to the final performance?
Choreographers, dancers and audience all have role to play
Feelings
choreographers create dances that have a definite theme, image or story line; looking at the images that the choreographer evokes through manipulating the dance elements
Elements of dance can be used to analyze a dance in two different ways:
-information that helps the audience look at the movement and structures of a dance (to see "how" the movement are used)
-information to help the audience see the symbols and images in the movements (to see "why" the movement are used the way they are)
Correct Interpretation
each individual brings their own life experience to everything that they view, not everyone will have the same interpretation
Audience is "with them"
feeling of performing in front of a disinterested or bored audience can be intimidate or at the very least, distracting
Key to understand dance?
Seeing as much dance as possible is the key to understanding and appreciating it
Sixteenth Century Ballet
Consisted only of simple floor patterns and poses; elaborate customs were the rule, although they greatly restricted the performance movement; leisurely pace, sometimes lasting several hours
Sun King
Louis XIV; king of France form 1643-1715; commissioned many ballet in which he himself performed; 1661 established the Royal Academy of Dance in France
Turned-out position
(rotating the legs out at the hip joint) in order to move more efficiently
Seventeenth Century Ballet
Dance masters vigorously trained dancers to perform with technical proficiency and many ballet were created to show the dancers abilities
Eighteenth Century Ballet
meaning or message that the movement depicted were the most important element of dance; priority was placed on having the audience "feel" something and receive a message from the performance
Jean George Noverre
developed ballet auction; brought importance of having a plot and using emotion in dance to the forefront of ballet choreography; wrote Letters on Dancing and Ballet
Nineteenth Century Ballet
Romantic ballet
Romantic ballet
characterized by a passionate striving to discovered meaning in human events, and effort that was uniquely reflected in all of the romantic arts, but perfectly ballet; characterized by their use of mythical characters and places
First Romantic ballet
La Sylphide (1832), choreographed by Filippo Taglioni
Marius Petipa
classical ballet can be traced back to, 1818-1910, developed "look" of the ballet
Classical Ballet
usually fills upstage (farthest point away from the audience), dressed in elaborate costumes typical of the characters they are portraying
Dancers in classical reportedly three categories
-principles (who have the leading roles in the ballet)
-soloists (who have solo and character roles)
-corps de ballet (the remaining members if the company)
Principals
particularly the male and female leads, are always the main focus of the ballet and are the dancers who move the story line from beginning to end
Grand pas de deux
-beginning with entrance of the male and female dancers, who then perform an adagio (slow duet)
-adagio is followed by a variation (solo) for each dancer, beginning with the male, that is usually comprised of difficult and quick movement, such as leaps, turn and jumps
-two dancers then return together for a final coda
Pas de deux
ballerina is the main focus of the duet, role of the male dancer is to support her in the difficult turns and lifts that are found in most classical ballet repertories
Classical ballet feature
strong story line, pantomime is often utilized to ensure that the plot remains intelligible to the audience
Classical Ballet wear
female dancer wear point shoes
Micheal Fokine
(1880-1942), contemporary ballet evolved, first master choreographer of the Ballet Russes
Corps de ballet
dancers are more than just a part of the scenery, should be important part of the entire dance
Contemporary Ballet aspect
movement, music, costumes and set should be presented with equal importance
Contemporary ballet wear
ballet slippers and even bare feet
Contemporary ballet choreographer
more freedom of movement in the torso, upper body and arms, giving the movement a more "modern dance" flavor
George Balanchine
(1904-1983), eliminated the elaborate sets and costumes used is classical ballets (that he felt took the focus away from the dancer movement) and presented the dancers as equals on stage (not as principles and corps)
Plotless
ballet that have as their focus the marriages of movement and music rather a than a storyline
Maurice Bajart
(1927-2007), artistic director of the Bejart Ballet, recognized for his witty and often flamboyant dances, operating on the premise that dance is a powerful form of communication, he was inspired to choreograph about different cultures and what he felt were the religious and social aspect of dance, blurred male and female identities
Matthew Bourne
Swan Lake in which all of the swans are male, powerful and aggressive; edgy and inventive choreography has added another dimension to the dance world
Valerie Bettis
first modern dance choreographer to set a work on a ballet company
Similarities between Classical and Contemporary Ballet
-Both use a vocabulary of movement that employs the French language
-Both emphasize a strong relationship to music
-Both utilized dancers who are highly trained in their technique and performance abilities
-Both the male and female dancers are featured on stage
Classical ballet dance to what type of music?
Classical music
Contemporary ballet dance to what type of music?
can use music that is abstract or from a specific genre, jazz music, classical music
Difference between classical and contemporary ballet?
Classical ballet keeps their spines erect. Contemporary ballet curve, twist and bend their upper bodies
The reason modern dance developed
direct revolt against what was perceived as the "restrictions" of ballet
Isadora Duncan
first dancer to president "modern dance" to the public; technique training and began in a way that seemed to her to be more natural; inspired by the movements of the trees, the ocean and by all of nature; danced barefoot and in sheer tunics similar to the Greek style; felt that these tunics did not restrict movement
Ted Shawn and Ruth St. Denis
influenced by different cultures, particularly of the Asian Countries
Total dancer
meaning the body, mind and spirit
Three major dance figures to come out of the Denishawn School
Martha Graham, Doris Humphery and Charles Weidman
Martha Graham
idea of "contracting" and "release" through the center of the body
Doris Humphrey and Charles Weidman
developed a technique that was built around the premise of "fall and recovery"
Modern dance choreograph were (and are) more concerned with?
Human condition and real-life situation and emotions
The role of the modern dance artists is?
To provide for the audience a view into life realities, complexities and experience
Abstract
reflect movement, rather than the story line, as the primary focus of the dance
Avant Grande
leaders in new and unconventional movement- specifically the post-modern movement
Merce Cunningham
first choreograph to emerge from using traditional modern dance choreographic methods and developed a new style of choreography; did not believe that a dance had to possess a theme or story line; revolved around the idea of "movement for movement sake"
Movement for Movement Sake
movement should be the primary focus in the dance and should be executed in order to depict a story to the audience
Suite of Chance
Which a toss of a coin determined different aspects of spatial designs, timing and order of movement sequence
Alwin Nikolais
did not feel that the "self" always had to be the main focus on stage; costumes that made them appear more as objects that humans; primary abstract is motion, not the emotion that he was concerned with
Paul Taylor
stood motionless for an entire "dance"
New Post Moderners wanted
reduce dance to its simplistic form and to its simplest form and to examine what they though dance really was
Alvin Ailey
performed to African-American spiritual, high technical dance that contains dramatic as well as comical moments; depicts the religious heritage of African-Americans
Today World of modern dance
there are no rules and regulation, just an underlying freedom to create in whatever way one wishes; modern dance "anything goes" would be understatement, today choreographers have gone well beyond any traditional definition of modern dnace
Similarities between traditional modern and post-modern dance
-Both presented dances that displayed innovative movement
-Both utilized themes that were social, political, and global
-Both utilized the elements of space, time and energy in a way that was different from ballet
Differences between traditional modern dance and post-modern dance
-Some post-modern dances were plot less and devoid or narrative; many traditional modern dance had strong narrative lines
-Traditional modern dances employed trained dancers; some post-modern choreographers used untrained dancers
-Traditional modern dances often utilized costumes; post-modern dances were often presents in everyday street clothes
-Traditional modern dance was often presented in theaters; post-modern dance was presented in a number or different places
Minstrel Show
Beginning in the 1830s; showcased black songs and dances, whites in black face appeared before the audience; 1860 the blacks began to appear in their own show
Cakewalk
came directly from plantation entertainments, was contest among dancing couples who attempted to outdoor each other in the mock important of the white man manners and behavior; dancers displayed their best struts, high kicks and show-stopping footwork
Dances became popular in early 1900
Vaudeville, revue and burlesque shows for next 20 years
Vaudeville
showcased a wealth of song and dance performers; marked the emergence of jazz music (around 1919), which was a combination of a ragtime and the blue
Flappers
women who wore their hair in a short bob and wore short,fringed dresses, are usually equated with the Charleston
Seymour Felix
introduced the marriage of book (script), music, lyrics, and dance as an important aspect of musical theature
Agnes de Mille
another pioneer of musical theater choreography, choreographed Oklahoma
Jack Cole
developed en entirely personal mode of jazz-ethnic (sic)- ballet that prevails as the dominant look of and technique for dancing in today's musicals, films, nightclub revue, television commercials and video; "father of jazz dance"; developed an innovative training technique using body isolationsf
Tap dancing is believed to have been created by blendign
Irish jig and the English clog with Negro Shuffle
Tap dance is style of dance
rhythmic sounds are produced by moving the feet. Shoes are worn with metal taps on the bottom, which produce the distinctive tap sound against the floor
Tap dance style
buckle and wing, shuffle, flap step and cramp roll
Bill "Bojangles" Robinson
African-American artists who popularized tap dance, person who tap danced with the child star Shirley Temple; vaudeville tapper who first performed in 1891 at age of twelve; first African-American performers to have regular employment in the mostly white theater, and one of the first rhythm tap dancers
Sammy Davis Jr
popularized tap dancer; combined his dancing talents with his wonderful ability to sing and act; starred in Tap
Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers
popular in musical theater productions; performing tap routines, they included ballroom dancing in their movies, bringing this unique combination of dance style to the public; performed Top Hat
Gene Kelly
popularized tap dance; presented tap dance in a very different manner from Astaire and Rogers, who were known for their gracefulness; famous for Singin' in the Rain
Gregory Hines
White nights (with ballet great Mikhail Baryshnikov); Most exciting tap dances ever to be captured on film
Savion Glover
choreography for the broad way show Bring in da Noise, Bring in da Funk; mixed tap with the hip-hop, break dancing and Glover unique style; Stomp and Tap Dog are sill performed world-wide and demonstrate a wide variety of tap style
Jazz Dance
-strong use of syncopated rhythms
-dancing has an improvisation feel
-Jazz dance can be seen on the theatrical stage, concert stage, and in movie musicals and popular music videos
Musical Theater
-Dance in musical theater productions can be used to enhance the story line and to move the story line along
-Script, music, lyrics and dance have a strong relationship
-Musical theater dance can be seen on the theatrical stage and in movie musicals
Tap Dance
-Shoes and worn with metal taps on the bottom
-Rhythmic sounds are produced by moving the feet
-Tap dance has a strong use of syncopated rhythms
-Tap dance has a vocabulary with prescribed steps, bust mostly, tap dance is improvisational
-There are different styles of tap and tap dancers: class acts, flash acts, soft shoe, rhythm tappers
-Tap dance can be seen on the theatrical stage, concert stage, and in movies, movie musicals and popular dance videos
Kinesthetic Properties of Dance
-body position, relation to gravity, sense of tension or release
Pile
to bend
Port de bras
Carriage of the arms
Adage
slow movement sequence
Pirroutte
turn of one leg
Serge Diaghilev
Neither a dancer nor a choreographer, but a producer who had a passion for dance and brought together many of the ballet world's most recognized
Filippo Taglioni
Italian choreographer, choreographed La Sylphide; have begun Romantic ballet; did this for his daughter how had very long arms; daughter of Marie
Taglioni
Marie Taglioni
daughter of Filippo Taglioni; performed many of her father dances; new costume design (bare neck and shoulders, tight fitting bodice and skirt just below the knee); beautifully executed jumps and leaps; developed point shoes
Development of weight
lift, shifting, floor movement, gravity; sense of tension release in the muscle
Our first definition of dance
art form that uses body movement alongside rhythm multiple purposes (and can be consider a sport)
Arthur Mitchell
African American ballet
Dance divided into three categories
Concert (top,jazz,hip hop); Social (courtship, ballroom, tango, two step, break dance, line dance); Religious (cultural perspective)
Katherine Dunham
African dancer who studied towards a doctorate in anthropology; researched Caribbean dance and brought vocabulary back to us; eventually established a school in east St. Louis
Luigi
In the 1960 dancer luigi became famous; his technique requires extreme muscle control, and grace: influenced by ballet
Bob Fosse
Jazz hands; choreographed Chicago and sweet charity
Twyla Tharp
Choreographer/ director movin out; has her own modern dance company, and had choreographed for ballet companies; choreographed film including white night with Baryshnikov and Gregory Hines; been awarded 17 honorary doctorates