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47 terms

Social Studies Chapter 5

STUDY
PLAY
Scientific Revolution
time of reason, 1500-1600, people used science to explain the world/nature
Joseph Priestly
built the framework for modern chemistry
Edward Jenner
developed a vaccine against small-pox
Natural laws
laws that govern human nature
Enlightenment
great time of scientific discovery, use of reason, people and govts. can solve every social, political, and economic reasons through reason.
philosophes
Enlightenment thinkers that applied the methods of science for understanding
Denis Diderot
author of the encyclopedia
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
most controversial philosophe, thought that community is more important than the individual, comes up with social contract
Adam Smith
british economist who admired physiocrats
Paris
city that was the heart of the Enlightenment
censorship
restricting access to ideas and information from people, burning of books and banning books
salons
informal social gatherings at which writers, artists, philosophes, and others exchanged ideas
Madame Geoffrin
Hostess of one of the most respected salons(Mozart&Diderot attended)
enlightened despots
absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social changes
Frederick the Great of Prussia
made freedom of religion, king who brings Voltaire to Prussia, drained swamps, gave peasants seed and tools to make crops
Catherine the Great of Russia
empress that expanded her empire, praised Voltaire, exchanged letters with Voltaire & Diderot, granted nobles a character of rights
Joseph 2 of Austria
"The peasant emperor", travelled in disguise to learn problems, created hospitals, abolished serfdom
baroque art
grand complex style of art, huge colorful paintings, full of excitement, Greek/Roman tradition 1600s
rococo style
personal, elegant, and charming, Mid 1700s
Mozart
profolic composer that wrote over 600 pieces of music, 1762 6 year progidy, composed operas, symponies & religious music, died in poverty
novel
long works of prose fiction
Act of Union
"UK", joined England & Scotland together(formed the United Kingdom of Great Britain)
Tories
political party, generally land-owning aristocrats, people that tried to keep old tradition
Whigs
political party, backed policies of Glorious Revolution, Religious toleration, Favored parliament over the crown
Robert Walpole
often called Britain's first prime-minister, molded cabinet into a unified body, Whig leader
George 3
wanted to end Whig domination, dissolve cabinet, and recover powers, 60 year reign, King of England during American revolution
Constitutional government
a government whose powers are defined and limited by law
Cabinet
handful of parliamentary advisers that set policy
Prime Minister
head of cabinet, leader of the majority party in Parliament, Head chief
Oligarchy
government in which the ruling power belongs to a few people
natural ruling class of Britain
landowning aristocrats/Tories
Highest Nobles
group that held seats in the House of Lords
Other wealthy Landowners & rich business leaders
controlled elections to the House of Commons
People permitted to vote
a relatively few male property owners
group that controlled affairs in towns and cities
successful merchents & manufacturers
Navigation Acts
laws regulating colonists, acts controlling trade
Continental Congress
group of representatives from each colony that decided what action to take against Great Britain
Battle of Saratoga
turning point of American Revolution, American victory that persuaded France to join war, 1777
Treaty of Paris of 1783
Britain recognized the U.S. by signing this document, made end of war
Bill of Rights
first 10 amendments - Natural Rights
Popular Sovereignty
all govt. power comes from the people
Loyalist
support of British control
Federal Republic
power divided between national and state govt.
Boston Massacre
huge Propaganda, shooting at angry colonists
Thomas Jefferson
the primary author of the Declaration of Independence
John Locke
his ideas were represented in the Declaration of Independence
people not allowed to vote in new American government
women, kids, Native Americans, African Americans(free & enslaved)