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Scientific Revolution

time of reason, 1500-1600, people used science to explain the world/nature

Joseph Priestly

built the framework for modern chemistry

Edward Jenner

developed a vaccine against small-pox

Natural laws

laws that govern human nature


great time of scientific discovery, use of reason, people and govts. can solve every social, political, and economic reasons through reason.


Enlightenment thinkers that applied the methods of science for understanding

Denis Diderot

author of the encyclopedia

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

most controversial philosophe, thought that community is more important than the individual, comes up with social contract

Adam Smith

british economist who admired physiocrats


city that was the heart of the Enlightenment


restricting access to ideas and information from people, burning of books and banning books


informal social gatherings at which writers, artists, philosophes, and others exchanged ideas

Madame Geoffrin

Hostess of one of the most respected salons(Mozart&Diderot attended)

enlightened despots

absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social changes

Frederick the Great of Prussia

made freedom of religion, king who brings Voltaire to Prussia, drained swamps, gave peasants seed and tools to make crops

Catherine the Great of Russia

empress that expanded her empire, praised Voltaire, exchanged letters with Voltaire & Diderot, granted nobles a character of rights

Joseph 2 of Austria

"The peasant emperor", travelled in disguise to learn problems, created hospitals, abolished serfdom

baroque art

grand complex style of art, huge colorful paintings, full of excitement, Greek/Roman tradition 1600s

rococo style

personal, elegant, and charming, Mid 1700s


profolic composer that wrote over 600 pieces of music, 1762 6 year progidy, composed operas, symponies & religious music, died in poverty


long works of prose fiction

Act of Union

"UK", joined England & Scotland together(formed the United Kingdom of Great Britain)


political party, generally land-owning aristocrats, people that tried to keep old tradition


political party, backed policies of Glorious Revolution, Religious toleration, Favored parliament over the crown

Robert Walpole

often called Britain's first prime-minister, molded cabinet into a unified body, Whig leader

George 3

wanted to end Whig domination, dissolve cabinet, and recover powers, 60 year reign, King of England during American revolution

Constitutional government

a government whose powers are defined and limited by law


handful of parliamentary advisers that set policy

Prime Minister

head of cabinet, leader of the majority party in Parliament, Head chief


government in which the ruling power belongs to a few people

natural ruling class of Britain

landowning aristocrats/Tories

Highest Nobles

group that held seats in the House of Lords

Other wealthy Landowners & rich business leaders

controlled elections to the House of Commons

People permitted to vote

a relatively few male property owners

group that controlled affairs in towns and cities

successful merchents & manufacturers

Navigation Acts

laws regulating colonists, acts controlling trade

Continental Congress

group of representatives from each colony that decided what action to take against Great Britain

Battle of Saratoga

turning point of American Revolution, American victory that persuaded France to join war, 1777

Treaty of Paris of 1783

Britain recognized the U.S. by signing this document, made end of war

Bill of Rights

first 10 amendments - Natural Rights

Popular Sovereignty

all govt. power comes from the people


support of British control

Federal Republic

power divided between national and state govt.

Boston Massacre

huge Propaganda, shooting at angry colonists

Thomas Jefferson

the primary author of the Declaration of Independence

John Locke

his ideas were represented in the Declaration of Independence

people not allowed to vote in new American government

women, kids, Native Americans, African Americans(free & enslaved)

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