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Week 4 - Cardiology
Terms in this set (59)
the area on the anterior chest directly overlying the heart and great vessels
-- the central compartment of the thoracic cavity surrounded by loose connective tissue, as an undelineated region that contains a group of structures within the thorax. The mediastinum contains the heart and its vessels, the esophagus, trachea, phrenic and cardiac nerves, the thoracic duct, thymus and lymph nodes of the central chest.
-- a membranous partition between two body cavities or two parts of an organ, especially that between the lungs.
What holds/where is the heart and great vessels located?
between the lungs in the middle third of the thoracic cage (mediastinum).
The heart extends from the ____nd to the ____th intercostal space and from the ____________ border of the sternum to the __________ midclavicular line (MCL).
the 2nd to the 5th
The apex of the heart points laterally or medially?
5th intercostal space at the midclavicular line (MCL).
Which chamber is immediately behind the sternum?
right ventricle is immediately behind the sternum and forms the greatest area of anterior cardiac surface
What are the names of the two atrioventricular (AV) valves that separate the atria and the ventricles?
The right AV valve is the tricuspid, and the left AV valve is the bicuspid or mitral valve
The valves' thin leaflets are anchored by collagenous fibers (chordae tendineae) to papillary muscles embedded in the ventricle floor.
What are the semilunar (SL) valves are set between?
What are their names?
When do they open?
the ventricles and the arteries
The SL valves are the pulmonic valve in the right side of the heart and the aortic valve in the left side of the heart.
They open during pumping, or systole, to allow blood to be ejected from the heart.
Why does abnormally high pressure in the left side of the heart gives a person symptoms of pulmonary congestion, and abnormally high pressure in the right side of the heart shows in the distended neck veins and abdomen?
There are no valves between the vena cava and the right atrium or between the pulmonary veins and the left atrium.
Direction of Blood Flow
1. From liver to RA through inferior vena cava.
Superior vena cava drains venous blood from the head and upper extremities.
From RA venous blood travels through tricuspid valve to RV.
2. From RV venous blood flows through pulmonic valve to pulmonary artery.
Pulmonary artery delivers unoxygenated blood to lungs.
3. Lungs oxygenate blood.
Pulmonary veins return fresh blood to LA.
4. From LA arterial blood travels through mitral valve to LV.
LV ejects blood through aortic valve into aorta.
5. Aorta delivers oxygenated blood to body.
When do the AV valves open and close?
The AV valves open during the heart's filling phase, or diastole, to allow the ventricles to fill with blood. During the pumping phase, or systole, the AV valves close to prevent regurgitation of blood back up into the atria.
The first heart sound (S1) occurs when?
the AV valves close and thus signals the beginning of systole
You can hear S1 over all the precordium, but usually it is loudest at the apex.
The second heart sound (S2) occurs with what?
closure of the semilunar valves and signals the end of systole.
S2 is loudest at the base
MoRe to the Right heart, Less to the Left
means that during inspiration, intrathoracic pressure is decreased. This pushes more blood into the vena cava, increasing venous return to the right side of the heart, which increases right ventricular stroke volume. The increased volume prolongs right ventricular systole and delays pulmonic valve closure.
Meanwhile on the left side, a greater amount of blood is sequestered in the lungs during inspiration. This momentarily decreases the amount returned to the left side of the heart, decreasing left ventricular stroke volume. The decreased volume shortens left ventricular systole and allows the aortic valve to close a bit earlier. When the aortic valve closes significantly earlier than the pulmonic valve, you can hear the two components separately. This is a split S2.
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