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Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 2 Chemical Level of Organization

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Smallest stable unit of matter:
Atoms
Atoms are composed of:
subatomic particles
Atomic particle with a positive electrical charge
Protons
Atomic particle with a negative electrical charge
Electrons
Neutral atomic particle
Neutron
The number of protons in an atom is known as its
atomic number
An Element is:
a pure substance composed of atoms of only one kind; it has uniform composition and properties
Isotopes
Atomso f the same element whose nuclei contain the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons.
Mass Number
total number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus
Ratio of Electrons to Protons
Equal
Radioactive isotopes are:
unstable isotopes that emit radiation as their nuclei decay into a stable configuration.
Atomic number =
number of protons
The first energy level can hold, at most:
2 electrons
The second energy level can hold, at most:
8 electrons
Surface of the atom is:
the outermost energy level
Valence Shell
the outermost shell or energy level
Activation Energy
the energy needed to initiate the reaction
Enzyme
Catalist - speeds up reaction time
A+B = AB
Synthesis or Anabolic Reations
AB = A+B
Catabolic Reaction
A free radical is:
an electrically charged atom with an unpaired electron in its outermost shell.
Ions
atoms or molecules that carry an electic charge, either positive or negative.
Cations
ions with a positive charge
Anions
ions with a negative charge
Ionic Bonds
chemical bonds created by the electrical attraction between anions and cations.
Covalent Bonds are:
Bonds between atoms that SHARE electrons with each other
Sharing one PAIR of electons creates:
single covalent bond
Sharing two PAIRS of electrons creates:
double covalent bond
Nonpolar covalent bonds have
equal sharing of the electrons
Polar covalent bonds:
Unequal sharing of the electons occurs because the elements differ in how strongly they attract electrons.
All of the reactions in the cells of the body at any given moment constitute:
Metabolism
Kinetic Energy:
Energy of motion. Energy that can be transferred to another object and perform work.
Potential Energy:
Stored energy. Energy that has the potential to do work.
Organic Compounds
Always contain Carbon (C) and Hydrogen (H).
Where is water usually found in the body?
Inside the cell, blood vessels, plasma, brain, joints, extracellular fluid (ECF)
Solute:
Substances dispersed in a solvent.
Solvent:
The medium in which other atoms, ions, or molecules are dispersed.
pH:
Hydrogen ion concentration in body fluids.
A solution with a pH of _ is said to be _______.
7; neutral
A solution with a pH below _ is said to be ____________.
7; acidic
a pH above _ is __________, and contains more _________ than __________.
7; basic; hydroxide ions; hydrogen ions.
CHO is a ________ and CHON is a _______.
Carbohydrate or Lipid; Protein
Monosaccharide:
Simple sugar - carbohydrate containing from 3 to 7 carbon atoms.
The atoms in a glucose molcule mya form either a ______ ______ or a _____.
straight chain; ring
Disaccharide
two monosaccharides joined together. (ex: sucrose)
Polysacharide
Complex carbohydrates with repeated dehydration synthesis reactions creating large molecules.
The Polysaccharide found in plants is:
starch
Steroid (definition and examples):
Ring fatty acid. Cholesterol, Testosterone and Estrogen.
Amylase is:
an enzyme found in saliva. It breaks down starch.
Sucrase is:
An enzyme that breaks down sucrose.
Nonpolar elements can:
travel through the cell membrane
What element can travel through the cell membrane due to its small size?
Water
Lipids contain a carbon-to-hydrogen ratio of:
1 to 2
Lipids form _________ _________ _________ of all cells.
essential structural components
Important energy reserves in the cell are?
Lipids
Lipids provide roughly _________ as much energy as ___________.
Twice; Carbohydrates
Fatty Acids are:
Long carbon chains with hydrogen atoms attached.
Fatty acids have __________ solubility in water due to ___________________.
Limited; their hydrophobic hydrocarbon tail.
In a saturated fatty acid:
each carbon atom in the tail has four single covalent bonds.
In an unsaturated fatty acid:
one or more of the single covalent bonds between the carbon atoms has been replaced by a double covalent bond.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids contain:
multiple double covalent bonds.
Hydrogen Bonds are _____ bonds.
weak
Hyrophilic compounds are:
Polar compounds that dissolve well in water.
Hydrophobic compounds are:
Nonpolar compounds that do not dissolve well in water.
Cohesion =
the tendency of like particles to stay together.
Law of conservative energy is:
energy is not created nor destroyed.
4 types of chemical reactions:
synthesis (anabolism); decompostion (catabolism); exchange; reversible
________ systems maintain the pH in your body.
Buffer
R-OH =
Hydroxyl (Alcohols; carbohydrates)
R-NH2 or RNH3+ =
Amine (amino acids)
R-COOH or R-COO- =
Amino Acids, fatty acids
R-H2PO4 =
Phosphate (ATP; nucleic acids; phospholipids)
R-C=O or R =
Carbonyl (Ketone, aldehydes; carbohydrates)
Components of a protein are:
C, H, O, N
What are the two functional protein groups?
Amine group and carboxyl group
Types of proteins are:
Antibodies, enzymes, hormones
________ are the most abundant organic component of the human body.
Proteins
The 7 essential functions of proteins are:
Support; Movement; Transport; Buffering; Metabolic Regulation; Coordination and Control; Defense
The 5 components of amino acids are:
1) central carbon atom; 2) hydrogen atom; 3) amino group (-NH2); 4) carboxylic acid group (-COOH); 5) variable group (R group or side chain)
Amino Acids are:
Long protein chains made up of organic molecules.
A peptide bond is:
a covalent bond between the crboxylic acid group of one amino acid and the amino group of another.
Peptides are:
Molecules consisting of amino acids held together by peptide bonds.
The 4 protein structures are:
Primary structure; Secondary Structure; Tertiary Structure; Quaternary Structure
Primary Structure of proteins is:
the sequence of amino acids along the length of a single polypeptide.
Secondary structure of proteins is:
bonds between atoms at different parts of the plypeptide chain. Creates either an alpha-helix or a flat pleated sheet.
Tertiary Structure of proteins is:
complex coiling and folding to give a 3-dimensional shape.
Quaternary Structure of protein is:
the arrangement of two or more plypeptide chains.
Enzymes are:
proteins that speed up most biochemical reactions
Active site=
the part of the enzyme that fits the substrate.
The five Nitrogenous bases in Nucleic Acids are:
Adenine; thymine; guanine; gytosine; uracil
ATP=
Adenosine Triphosphate - Energy of living things. Currency of the cell.
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