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PNCB Preb: HEALTH PROMOTION and ASSESSMENT & DIAGNOSIS - Growth and Development
Terms in this set (58)
Normal gestational age can range from:
38 to 42 weeks
Low birth weight (LBW):
Very low birth weight (VLBW):
Extremely low birth weight (ELBW):
Initial weight loss in the newborn:
8-10% in the first 3-4 days of life
Regained in 7 days if formula fed
Regained in 14 days if breastfed
Weight at 6 months should be:
Double the birth weight
Weight at 1 year should be:
Triple the birth weight
Weight by 2 years should be:
Quadruple the birth weight
Posterior fontanel closes by:
6-8 weeks of life
Anterior fontanel closes by:
Survival reflexes include:
ii. Temperature control
Indications of newborn vision:
- Positive blink reflex
- Pupillary constriction/reaction to light
How a child behaves
Social smiling occurs by:
Stranger anxiety begins around:
6 months of age
Separation anxiety begins around:
8-9 months of age
What is the underlying emotion for SECURE ATTACHMENT?
What is the underlying emotion for INSECURE-AVOIDANT ATTACHMENT?
What is the underlying emotion for INSECURE-ANXIOUS?
Language milestones birth to 5 months:
- Laugh, giggle, cry, fuss
Language milestones 6-11 months:
- Understands "no"
- Babbles "ba-ba"
- Says "mama" and "dada" without meaning
- Tries to repeat sounds
- Says first word
Language milestones 12-17 months:
- Vocabulary of 4-5 words
Language milestones 18-24 months:
- Vocabulary of 50 words
- Starts to combine words to 2-word phrases "more milk"
Language development by age 3:
- 900 words
- Three-word sentences
Language development by age 5:
- More than 2000 words
- Five-word sentences
- Knows at least 4 colors
Tendency to focus thinking and understanding about the world from their own perspective
Everything animate or inanimate thinks and feels the way the preschooler does
What is considered the major psychosocial medium for early mastery of physical, cognitive and social skills?
What is considered the first physical sign of puberty onset in females?
What is considered the first physical sign of puberty onset in males?
Which tanner stage is indicative of beginning of puberty in males and females?
Tanner stage 2
Three fundamental domains of growth and development:
i. Physical domain
ii. Cognitive domain
iii. Psychosocial domain
Sigmund Freud stages of PSYCHOSEXIAL development:
Infanty - oral stage
Toddler - anal stage
Preschool - phallic stage
School age - latent stage
Adolescent - genital stage
Erik Erikson stages of PSYCHOSOCIAL development:
Infancy: trust vs. mistrust
Toddler: autonomy vs. shame and doubt
Preschool: initiative vs. guilt
School age: industry vs. inferiority
Adolescence: identity vs. role confusion
Young adult: intimacy vs. isolation
Middle age: generativity vs. stagnation
Older adult: integrity vs. despair
Jean Piaget stages of COGNITIVE development:
Sensorimotor: birth to 2 years
Preoperational: 2-7 years
Concrete operational: 7-12 years
Formal operational: 12 years onward
Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs:
i. Physiologic needs
ii. Safety, security and stability
iii. Affiliation, acceptance and love
iv. Ego, self-worth, confidence, competence, and success
v. Self actualization
Tanner stages of genital maturity in MALES:
Stage 1: preadolescent testes, scrotum, and penis
Stage 2: Enlargement of scrotum and testes; scrotum reddens and roughens
Stage 3: Penis enlarges primarily in length; penis elongates
Stage 4: Penis enlarges in breadth and development of glans
Stage 5: Adult size and shape
Tanner stages of breast development in FEMALES:
Stage 1: Preadolescent breast with nipple elevation
Stage 2: Breast buds with areolar enlargement
Stage 3: Breast enlargement without separate nipple contour
Stage 4: Projection of areaola and nipple as secondary mound to breast
Stage 5: Adult breast with areola receding and nipple projecting from breast
Tanner stages of pubic hair development in MALES AND FEMALES:
Stage 1: Preadolecent without pubic hair
Stage 2: Sparse, pale, fine pubic hair
Stage 3: Darker, more curled, increased amount of pubic hair
Stage 4: Hair is adult in character but doesn't cover entire pubic area
Stage 5: Adult distribution in quantity, quality, and pattern
Sexual Maturity Rating (SMR) is obtained by:
Taking the average from both Tanner stage rates (genital/breast and pubic hair development)
Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition (BSID-II)
Current "gold standard" for diagnosing developmental delays and recommending intervention for children birth through 42 months
Denver II developmental tool screens for which four domains in children from birth to 6?
ii. Fine motor-adaptive
iv. Gross motor
Which cognitive developmental tool is used to screen IQ as a measure of intelligence?
The use of "time out" is most aligned with which theory?
Operant or instrumental conditioning
Head circumference: chest circumference during the first year of life:
HC is 2cm larger than chest
Head and chest circumference should be equal by what age?
1 year of age
Fontanels should be assessed in what fashion?
While the infant is sitting up and NOT crying
Head control should be established by what age?
Head lag after 6 months could be a potential sign of:
Adequate nutrition in infants is confirmed by:
How much height should toddlers to school age children gain annually?
2.5 inches of growth annually
How much weight should school age children gain annually?
The first tooth usually erupts at what age?
- Central incisor the first to erupt
Object permanence should be established by what age?
Use of a spoon/utensils should be encouraged at what age?
When do girls typically reach peak height velocity?
11 to 12 years of age (prior to menarche)
At what age should children begin screenings for scoliosis?
9 years old
- via Adam's forward bending test
Onset of female menses (menarche) occurs:
Between Tanner stage 3 and 4; predominantly at 4
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