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29 terms

Sociology Chapter 2 Terms

STUDY
PLAY
Culture Shock
the disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with fundamentally different cultures
Language
a system of symbols that can be combined in an infinite number of ways and can represent not only objects but abstract thoughts
Cultural Universals
a value, norm, or other cultural trait that is found in every group
Gestures
the ways in which people use their bodies to communitcate with one another
Ideal Culture
the ideal values and norms of a people; the goals held out for them
Real Culture
the norms and values that people actually follow
Subculture
the values and related behaviors of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture; a world within a world
Counterculture
a group who's values, beliefs, and related behaviors place its members in opposition to the broader culture
Nonmaterial Culture
a groups way of thinking (beliefs, values, and other assumptions about the world)
Material Culture
tangible objects of a culture
Ethnocentrism
the use of one's own culture as a yard stick for judging the ways of other individuals and society
Values
the standards by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly
Culture War
when values clash
Charles Darwin
came up with the idea of social darwinism-- "survival of the fittest"
Cultural Relativism
not judging a culture but trying to understand it on its own terms
Pluralistic Society
a society made up of many different groups
Value Contradiction
values that contradict one another
Moré
a norm that is strictly enforced
Natural Selection
people best adapted to their society are more apt to survive
Positive Sanction
a reward or positive reaction for following norms, ranging from a smile to a prize
Negative Sanction
an expression of disapproval for breaking a norm; ranging from a frown to a prison sentence
Cultural Diffusion
the spread of cultural characteristics from one group to another
Folkways
norms that are not strictly enforced
Emoticons
developed to substitute for gestures
Taboo
a norm so strong that it often brings revulsion if violated
Basic Elements of Nonmaterial Culture
beliefs, values, other assumptions about world
Cultural Leveling
the process by which cultures become similar to one another; especially the US culture which is being exported and diffused into other nations
Examples of Subcultures
Muslims, Amish, Rasfarians, Greek
American Values
Achivement and Success
Individualism
Activity and Work
Efficiency
Science and Technology
Progress
Material Comfort
Humanitarianism
Freedom
Democracy
Equality
Racism and Group Superiority
Education
Religiosity
Romantic Love