the disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with fundamentally different cultures
a system of symbols that can be combined in an infinite number of ways and can represent not only objects but abstract thoughts
a value, norm, or other cultural trait that is found in every group
the ways in which people use their bodies to communitcate with one another
the ideal values and norms of a people; the goals held out for them
the norms and values that people actually follow
the values and related behaviors of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture; a world within a world
a group who's values, beliefs, and related behaviors place its members in opposition to the broader culture
a groups way of thinking (beliefs, values, and other assumptions about the world)
tangible objects of a culture
the use of one's own culture as a yard stick for judging the ways of other individuals and society
the standards by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly
when values clash
came up with the idea of social darwinism-- "survival of the fittest"
not judging a culture but trying to understand it on its own terms
a society made up of many different groups
values that contradict one another
a norm that is strictly enforced
people best adapted to their society are more apt to survive
a reward or positive reaction for following norms, ranging from a smile to a prize
an expression of disapproval for breaking a norm; ranging from a frown to a prison sentence
the spread of cultural characteristics from one group to another
norms that are not strictly enforced
developed to substitute for gestures
a norm so strong that it often brings revulsion if violated
Basic Elements of Nonmaterial Culture
beliefs, values, other assumptions about world
the process by which cultures become similar to one another; especially the US culture which is being exported and diffused into other nations
Examples of Subcultures
Muslims, Amish, Rasfarians, Greek
Achivement and Success
Activity and Work
Science and Technology
Racism and Group Superiority
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