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Federal Housing Administration
insured millions of long-term mortgages issued by private banks. a United States government agency created in part by the National Housing Act of 1934. It sets standards for construction, underwriting, and insures loans made by banks and other private lenders for home building.
G.I. Bill
also called Servicemen's Readjustment Act, U.S. legislation passed in 1944 that provided benefits to World War II veterans. Through the Veterans Administration (VA), the bill provided grants for school and college tuition, low-interest mortgage and small-business loans, job training, hiring privileges, and unemployment payments.
Federal aid Highway Act
An act to amend and supplement the Federal Aid Road Act approved July 11, 1916, to authorize appropriations for continuing the construction of highways; to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 to provide additional revenue from taxes on motor fuel, tires, and trucks and buses; and for other purposes.
National Defense Education Act
U.S. federal legislation passed by Congress and signed into law by Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower on September 2, 1958, that provided funding to improve American schools and to promote post secondary education.
Containment
American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world
NAACP
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People,
interest group founded in 1910 to promote civil rights for African Americans
Plessy v, Ferguson
established "separate but equal' doctrine used in the first half of the 20th century
Little Rock Nine
a group of nine African American students enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in 1957. Their enrollment was followed by the Little Rock Crisis, in which the students were initially prevented from entering the racially segregated school by Orval Faubus, the Governor of Arkansas
Montgomery bus Boycott
a seminal event in the Civil Rights Movement, was a political and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama.
Civil Disobedience
A nonviolent, public refusal to obey allegedly unjust laws.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
an African-American civil rights organization. SCLC, which is closely associated with its first president, Martin Luther King Jr, had a large role in the American Civil Rights Movement.
Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee
one of the most important organizations of the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. It emerged from a student meeting organized by Ella Baker held at Shaw University in April 1960.
Woolworth's Sit-in
four African American college students sat down at a lunch counter at Woolworth's in Greensboro, North Carolina, and politely asked for service. Their request was refused.
Birmingham Alabama
one of the most influential campaigns of the Civil Rights Movement: Project C, better known as The Birmingham Campaign. The 16th Street Baptist Church bombing was an act of white supremacist terrorism which occurred at the African-American 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama on Sunday, September 15, 1963,
Dallas, Texas
President John F. Kennedy was assassinated as he rode in a motorcade through Dealey Plaza in downtown Dallas, Texas. By the fall of 1963, President John F. Kennedy and his political advisers were preparing for the next presidential campaign.
Warren Commission
Official investigation of the assassination of President Kennedy
Freedom Riders
seven black, six white, and nearly all young, were recruited by the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) to challenge state Jim Crow laws by riding buses together into the Deep South. Two buses set out to take them from Washington, D.C. to New Orleans.
Selma Alabama
On 25 March 1965, Martin Luther King led thousands of nonviolent demonstrators to the steps of the capitol in Montgomery, Alabama, after a 5-day, 54-mile march from Selma, Alabama, where local African Americans, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) had been campaigning for voting rights
Voting Rights Act of 1965
A law passed at the time of the civil rights movement. It eliminated various devices, such as literacy tests, that had traditionally been used to restrict voting by black people.
Equal Pay Act
1963 law that required both men and women to receive equal pay for equal work
Equal Rights Amendment
equal rights for all no matter what the gender
Civil Rights Act of 1968
signed into law in April 1968-popularly known as the Fair Housing Act-prohibited discrimination concerning the sale, rental and financing of housing based on race, religion, national origin and sex.
Bay of Pigs
1961, an unsuccessful invasion of Cuba by Cuban exiles, supported by the U.S. government. On Apr. 17, 1961, an armed force of about 1,500 Cuban exiles landed in the Bahía de Cochinos (Bay of Pigs) on the south coast of Cuba
Cuban Missile Crisis
A confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union in 1962 over the presence of missile sites in Cuba; one of the "hottest" periods of the cold war.
Gulf of Tonkin Incident
gave broad congressional approval for expansion of the Vietnam War. During the spring of 1964, military planners had developed a detailed design for major attacks on the North, but at that time President Lyndon B. Johnson and his advisers feared that the public would not support an expansion of the war. By summer, however, rebel forces had established control over nearly half of South Vietnam, and Senator Barry Goldwater, the Republican nominee for president, was criticizing the Johnson administration for not pursuing the war more aggressively.
Pentagon Papers
the name given to a secret Department of Defense study of U.S. political and military involvement in Vietnam from 1945 to 1967, prepared at the request of Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara in 1967.
Operation Rolling Thunder
bombing campaign over North Vietnam, supposed to weaken enemy's ability and will to fight
war protests
The movement against U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War began small-among peace activists and leftist intellectuals on college campuses-but gained national prominence in 1965, after the United States began bombing North Vietnam in earnest.
1968 Democratic National Convention
in Chicago, tens of thousands of Vietnam War protesters battle police in the streets, while the Democratic Party falls apart over an internal disagreement concerning its stance on Vietnam.
Tet offensive
This told Americans that we did not control the situation in Vietnam, an offensive by Vietcong and North Vietnamese forces against South Vietnamese and U.S. positions in South Vietnam, beginning on Jan. 31, 1968, the start of Tet.
Vietnamization
(in the Vietnam War) the US policy of withdrawing its troops and transferring the responsibility and direction of the war effort to the government of South Vietnam.
Silent Majority
A term used by President Richard Nixon to indicate his belief that the great body of Americans supported his policies and that those who demonstrated against the involvement of the United States in the Vietnam War amounted to only a noisy minority.
Stonewall
a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay (LGBT) community against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn, located in the Greenwich ...
Dwight D. Eisenhower
He Ended the Korean War.
He Balanced the Budget, Not Just Once, But Three Times.
He Sponsored and Signed the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956.
He Sponsored and Signed the Civil Rights Bill of 1957.
Richard Nixon
U.S. president who resigned before his almost certain impeachment
Nikita Khrushchev
President. Kennedy blamed Khrushchev the Russian prime minister for the missile crisis
Fidel Castro
Communist Cuban dictator from the early 60s until 2010, leader during cuban missile crisis
ho Chi Minh
Communist leader of North Vietnam
Ngo Dinh Diem
South Vietnamese statesman: president of the Republic of South Vietnam 1956-63.
Elvis
Very popular rock singe during this time period
Little Richard
Another very popular rock artist, he was black
Thurgood Marshall
Thurgood Marshall was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, serving from October 1967 until October 1991. Marshall was the Court's 96th justice and its first African-American justice.
Daisy Bates
Daisy Lee Gatson Bates was an American civil rights activist, publisher, journalist, and lecturer who played a leading role in the Little Rock Integration Crisis of 1957.
Orval Faubus
Governor of Alabama who segregated against the little rock nine
Rosa Parks
Rosa Louise McCauley Parks was an activist in the Civil Rights Movement, whom the United States Congress called "the first lady of civil rights" and "the mother of the freedom movement" She refused to give up her seat on the bus for a white man, and was arrested.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr. was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the Civil Rights Movement.
E.D Nixon
Edgar Daniel Nixon, known as E. D. Nixon, was an African-American civil rights leader and union organizer in Alabama who played a crucial role in organizing the landmark Montgomery Bus Boycott there in 1955.
John F. Kennedy
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy, commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon Baines Johnson, often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after serving as the 37th Vice President. Took over after JFK.
Lee Harvey Oswald
Lee Harvey Oswald was an American former U.S. Marine who was arrested for the assassination of United States President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963
Robert Kennedy
Robert Francis "Bobby" Kennedy, commonly known by his initials RFK, was an American politician from Massachusetts. He served as the United States junior senator from New York from January 1965 until his assassination in June 1968.
James Farmer
James Leonard Farmer Jr. was a civil rights activist and leader in the Civil Rights Movement "who pushed for nonviolent protest to dismantle segregation, and served alongside Martin Luther King Jr.
Eugene "Bull Connor"
Theophilus Eugene Connor, known as Bull Connor, was an American politician who served as an elected Commissioner of Public Safety for the city of Birmingham, Alabama, for more than two decades. Completley opposed the civil rights movment and took action against it
Medgar Evers
Medgar Wiley Evers was an American civil rights activist from Mississippi who worked to overturn segregation at the University of Mississippi and to enact social justice and voting rights. He was murdered by a white supremacist and Klansman.
George Wallace
pro-segregation governor of Alabama who ran for pres. in 1968 on American Independent Party ticket of segregation and law and order, loses to Nixon; runs in 1972 but gets shot and is left paralyzed
Jim Clark
James Gardner "Jim" Clark, Jr. was the sheriff of Dallas County, Alabama from 1955 to 1966. He was one of the officials responsible for the violent arrests of civil rights protestors during the Selma to Montgomery marches of 1965
Malcolm X
He was a member of the Black Muslims and the Black Power movement. His wanted to find equality for black Americans using "any means necessary," and to separate, not integrate, blacks and whites. Later in life he changed his views about working with white America and was assassinated in 1965
Emmit Till
Emmett Louis Till was a 14-year-old African-American who was lynched in Mississippi in 1955. The brutality of his murder and the fact that his killers were acquitted
Bob Dylan
The writer and singer of many protest songs, opposed racsim
Joan Baez
Joan Chandos Baez is an American folk singer, songwriter, musician, and activist whose contemporary folk music often includes songs of protest or social justice. Baez has performed publicly for over 59 years, releasing over 30 albums
Stokely Carmichael
Kwame Ture was a Trinidadian-American who became a prominent figure in the Civil Rights Movement and the global Pan-African movement. He grew up in the United States from the age of 11 and became an activist while he attended Howard University, chairman of the SNCC, popularized the phrase, "black power"
Richard J. Daley
Richard Joseph Daley was an American politician who served as the 38th Mayor of Chicago for a total of 21 years beginning on April 20, 1955 until his death on December 20, 1976
Hubert. H Humphrey
LBJ's vice president and McCarthy's opposition in 1968 primary after LBJ stepped down. He won the Democratic nomination but not the presidency, strong civil rights activist from Minnesota
Betty Friedan
an American writer, activist, and feminist. A leading figure in the women's movement in the United States, her 1963 book The Feminine Mystique is often credited with sparking the second wave of American feminism in the 20th century.
Cesar Chavez
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