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something that produces a reaction


reaction to any kind of stimulus


learning through the pairing of different stimuli

classical conditioning

simple form of learning in which one stimulus comes to call forth the response of something (natural-bodily response)

Ivan Pavlov

trained dogs to associate one thing with another (lab coat to food) and trained rats to go through maze

taste aversion

a learned avoidance of a particular food

unconditioned stimulus

automatic reaction that is not learned

unconditioned response

automatic bodily reaction to something

conditioned response

learned response to a previously neutral response

conditioned stimulus

stimulus that becomes learned, is taught


when a conditioned stimulus no longer produces the same response (when a song you once loved grows old)

spontaneous recovery

when an extinct response comes back from the same stimuli (fav song comes back)


act of responding the same way to stimuli that seems similar


act of responding differently to stimuli that are not similar


when you expose someone to a harmless stimuli until a fear disppears (type of conditioning)

systematic desensitization

when people are taught relaxation techniques to overcome a fear

systematic desensitization

when people are taught relaxation techniques to overcome a fear or stress


a pleasant stimulus is paired with a fearful stimulus to over come a fear (replaces the fear)

bell and pad method

teaches children to wake up and respond to bladder tension (peeing the bed)

operant conditioning

when people learn to do and not to do certain things

B.F. Skinner

preformed a bird experiment using pos. reinforement


process by which a stimulus increases the chances that a behavior will be repeated or not repeated (positive or negative)

primary reinforcers

most basic needs of a person that are needed to survive (food shelter warmth)

secondary reinforcers

must be learned or aquired by being paired with established reinforcers (learn something is good/bad)


-teaches correct behavior
-stay consistent
-dont do severely
-can create anger/hostility
-can teach more wrong behavior
-not doing this can be effective too

schedule of reinforcement

when and how reinforcement occurs (continuous or partial)

continuous reinforcement

reinforcement happens all the time

partial reinforcement

reinforcement that only happens part of the time

interval schedule reinforcement

fixed amount of time must go by before reinforement occurs

variable interval schedule reinforcement

varying amount of time passes between reinforment (pop quizzes)


using steps to do something (operant conditioning)

program learning

can use complex tasks to achieve several behaviors (advanced shaping)

latent learning

learning that remains hidden until needed

observational learning

learning things by observing behavior


Preview: look over material

Question: ask a general question to make you critically think

Read: read material to answer your question

Reflect: bring back old info to learn new info

Recite: use methods (songs) to recite info to remember

Review: helps you remember
-distributed: over time
-massed: cramming info at once

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