39 terms

Astronomy 6th Grade 2016

Astronomy
STUDY
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Terms in this set (...)

Astronomy
the study of the moon, stars, and other objects in space.
Rotation
Earth's spinning around its axis
Solstice
two days out of the year where we have the longest day or the longest night
Equinox
two days out of the year neither hemisphere is tilted toward or away from the sun.
Inertia
the tendency of a moving object to continue in a straight line or a stationary object to remain in place.
Eclipse
occurs when an object in space comes between the sun and a third object and casts a shadow on that object.
Maria
dark, flat areas on the moon's surface
satellite
any natural or artificial object that revolves around earth
Geocentric
a description of the solar system in which all of the planets revolve around Earth
Heliocentric
a description of the solar system in which all of the planets revolve around the sun.
Retrograde rotation
rotation from east to west, opposite direction from most planets and moons
Nuclear fusion
a process used by the sun and stars to create energy
Solar wind
the stream of electrically charged particles the corona sends out
Sun spots
areas of gas on the sun that are cooler than gases around them
Star
a giant ball of hot gas that creates and emits its own radiation through nuclear fusion
Universe
all of space and everything in it
Pulsar
a type of neutron star; highly magnetized, rotates at enormous speeds, detected by radio pulses.
quasars
most distant visible objects (because of their brightness)
galaxy
a giant structure that contains hundreds of billions of stars
big bang
the initial explosion that resulted in the formation and expansion of the universe.
binary stars
a star system that contains two stars
comet
a ball of ice and dust whose orbit is a long, narrow ellipse
asteroid
objects revolving around the sun that are too small and too numerous to be considered planets
meteor
a chunk of rock or dust in space
meteorite
a meteoroid that has hit Earth's surface
constellations
a pattern of stars in the sky
light-year
the distance light travel in one year
meteoroid
a chunk of rock or dust in space
asteroid belt
is between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter
List the 6 sizes of a star:
Super giant,Giant,Medium - average size,White dwarf ,Neutron,Pulsars
What's the difference between apparent magnitude and absolute magnitude?
Apparent- the brightness as seen from earth, Absolute- the brightness if it was a standard distance from Earth
What's the difference between a black hole and a super nova?
supernova- the explosion of a dying giant or supergiant star, black hole- the remains of an extremely massive star pulled into a small volume by the force of gravity.
Which astronomers supported a geocentric solar system, and what is it?
Early Greek astronomers and Ptolemy; Earth at the center
Who supported a heliocentric solar system, and what is it?
Copernicus and Galileo; Sun at the center
What is the name of our galaxy and who is our closest neighbor?
Milky way is our galaxy and Andromeda Galaxy is the closest
Explain why the earth experiences seasons.
The Earth experiences seasons because its axis is tilted as it moves around the sun, If Earth's axis were straight up and down relative to the sun. temperatures would remain fairly constant all year, Due to the tilt, part of the Earth is tilted toward the sun and the other part of the year the Earth is tilted away from the sun.
According to Isaac Newton, why do the planets remain in orbit?
Isaac Newton concluded that two factors, inertia and gravity combine to keep the planets in orbit. Gravity pulling the planets toward the sun keep the planets in orbit (and from spinning out into space) while the planets' inertia keeps them moving at a constant speed
Describe how the sun creates energy in its core.
The sun creates energy in its core through nuclear fusion. (Topic sentence), During nuclear fusion, two hydrogen atoms join together (fuse) to form helium. , The nuclear reactions convert some of the hydrogen into helium. , The remaining mass is converted into energy. This energy is in the form of heat and light. , The process only occurs under conditions of extremely high temperature and pressure. , The temperature inside the sun's core reaches about 15 million degrees Celsius, high enough for nuclear fusion to occur. (concluding sentence)
How do astronomers think our solar system formed? (explain the stages that our solar system went through)
Nebula collapsed (gas and dust) , Spinning disc - gravity moved the gas and dust into the center of the solar system. The energy was great enough to create high heat and pressure in the center which caused Nuclear Fusion and formed the sun. , Planets and asteroids were formed similarly.