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BIO CHAPTER 7 HOMEWORK QUESTIONS
Terms in this set (25)
When a glucose molecule loses a hydrogen atom as the result of an oxidation-reduction reaction, the glucose molecule becomes
Metabolic pathways that release stored energy by breaking down complex molecules are known as
When a molecule of NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) gains a hydrogen atom (not a proton), the NAD+ molecule becomes
Why does the oxidation of organic compounds by molecular oxygen to produce CO2 and water release free energy?
Electrons are being moved from atoms that have a lower affinity for electrons (such as C) to atoms with a higher affinity for electrons (such as O).
The ATP produced in glycolysis is generated by
The complete oxidation of glucose (C6H12O6) to carbon dioxide and water in aerobic respiration consumes how many molecules of oxygen (O2)?
Which of the following indicates a primary path by which electrons travel downhill energetically during aerobic respiration?
glucose → NADH → electron transport chain → oxygen
The oxygen consumed during cellular respiration is involved directly in which process or event?
accepting electrons at the end of the electron transport chain
The ATP produced in the citric acid cycle is generated by
Which kind of metabolic poison would most directly interfere with glycolysis?
an agent that closely mimics the structure of glucose but is not metabolized
Which process in eukaryotic cells will proceed normally whether oxygen (O2) is present or absent?
Substrate-level phosphorylation accounts for approximately what percentage of the ATP formed by the reactions of glycolysis?
During glycolysis, when each molecule of glucose is catabolized to two molecules of pyruvate, most of the potential energy contained in glucose is
retained in the two pyruvates.
Glycolysis results in a net production of which of the following from each molecule of glucose?
2 NADH, 2 pyruvate, and 2 ATP
Starting with one molecule of isocitrate and ending with fumarate, how many ATP molecules can be made through substrate-level phosphorylation (see the figure)?
Which statement about the citric acid cycle is correct?
The last reaction in the citric acid cycle produces a product that is a substrate for the first reaction of the citric acid cycle.
The last reaction of the citric acid cycle produces oxaloacetate, which is a substrate for the first enzyme; this is the correct description of the cyclic nature of this sequence of reactions.
A young dog has never had much energy. He is brought to a veterinarian for help, and she decides to conduct several diagnostic tests. She discovers that the dog's mitochondria can use only fatty acids and amino acids for cellular respiration, and his cells produce more lactate than normal. Of the following, which is the best explanation of the dog's condition?
His mitochondria lack the transport protein that moves pyruvate across the outer mitochondrial membrane.
For each molecule of glucose that is metabolized by glycolysis and the citric acid cycle (see the figure), what is the total number of NADH + FADH2 molecules produced?
The primary role of oxygen in cellular respiration is to
serve as an acceptor for electrons and hydrogen, forming water.
Inside an active mitochondrion, most electrons follow which pathway?
citric acid cycle → NADH → electron transport chain → oxygen
Brown fat cells produce a protein called thermogenin in their mitochondrial inner membrane. Thermogenin is a channel for facilitated transport of protons across the membrane. What will occur in the brown fat cells when they produce thermogenin?
ATP synthesis will decrease, and heat generation will increase.
Approximately how many molecules of ATP are produced from the complete oxidation of two molecules of glucose (C6H12O6) in aerobic cellular respiration?
Which statement best supports the hypothesis that glycolysis is an ancient metabolic pathway that originated before the last universal common ancestor of life on Earth?
Glycolysis is widespread and is found in the domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya.
The ATP made during fermentation is generated by which of the following?
In alcohol fermentation, NAD+ is regenerated from NADH by
reduction of acetaldehyde to ethanol.
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