APUSH The Gilded Age and Progressive Era
Terms in this set (96)
Ulysses S. Grant
He was the first president elected to office after the Civil War. He was previously a Union General who defeated General Lee at Appomattox Courthouse, thus ending the Civil War. During his presidency, several scams occurred, although he was never proven to be involved with any of them. Also, the Panic of 1873 (due to over-speculation) came about during his reign. He served out two consecutive terms and was not re-nominated to run for a third.
He was a cartoonist for the New York Times and drew many famous political cartoons, including many of Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall. The cartoon showed condemning evidence of the corrupt ringleader and he was jailed shortly afterwards.
In 1872, the Republicans re-nominated Grant causing some of the "reform-minded" Republicans to leave their party and create the Liberal Republican Party. They nominated this guy, editor of the New York Tribune. The Democrats also nominated him. There was much mudslinging involved in this election and he lost, in more ways than one. Along with the loss of the presidency, he lost his job, his wife, and his mind within one month of the election.
Rutherford B. Hayes
He was a Republican governor from Ohio. He had spent the majority of his term as governor reforming the government and politics within Ohio. He was elected president in 1876 by the Compromise of 1877. He was known as the "caretaker" president because he took care of the country.
He was a New York lawyer who rose to fame by bagging Boss Tweed, a notorious New York political boss. He was nominated for president in 1876 by the Democratic party because of his clean-up image. This election was so close that it led to the Compromise of 1877. Even though he had more popular votes, the compromise gave the presidency to the Republicans and allowed the Democrats to stop Reconstruction in the South.
James A. Garfield
He was elected to the presidency in 1880. He barely won the popular vote, but won by a huge margin in the electoral college. He was assassinated, so that the Stalwarts could be in power in the government. This brought about reforms in the spoils systems.
Chester A. Arthur
He was the vice president of James A. Garfield. After President Garfield was assassinated, in September of 1881, this guy assumed the presidency. Despite a lack of qualifications, he proved a vigorous leader.
Charles J. Guiteau
In 1881, this guy shot President Garfield in the back in a Washington railroad station. He allegedly committed this crime so that Arthur, a Stalwart, would become president. His attorneys used a plea of insanity, but failed and this guy was hanged for murder. After this event, politics began to get cleaned up with laws like the Pendleton Act.
He was the Democratic presidential candidate for the 1884 election. His Republican opponent, James G. Blaine, was involved in several questionable deals, but this guy had an illegitimate child. Consequently, the election turned into a mudslinging contest. This guy won, becoming the first Democratic president since Buchanan. He took few initiatives, but he was effective in dealing with excessive military pensions. He placated both North and South by appointing some former Confederates to office, but sticking mostly with Northerners. He also forced Congress to discuss lowering the tariff, although the issue could not be resolved before he was defeated by Benjamin Harrison in the 1888 election.
He was called "Young Tippecanoe" because of grandfather, William Henry. He was a Republican and was elected president in 1888. His opponent, Grover Cleveland, had more popular votes, but he was put in office because of more electoral votes. He was both pro-business and pro-tariff.
This is the theory that more printed money causes inflation. With more money in circulation, it would be easier to get one's hands on some of it, making it easy to pay off debts. Creditors clearly disliked this idea. This was favored by the farmers and debtors. This theory's advocates wanted more "greenbacks" printed or more silver currency coined.
Hard or Sound Money
The metallic or specie dollar is known as this. It was extremely important during the late 1860's and early 1870's, especially during the Panic of 1873. It was in opposition with "greenbacks" or "folding money." The issuing of the "greenbacks" was overdone and the value depreciated causing inflation and the Panic of 1873. This theory's advocates looked for the complete disappearance of the "folding money." The creditors and wealthy supported hard money, the debtors and poor supported cheap money.
It was a period in U.S. history around 1870-1900 that seemed fine on the outside, but was politically corrupt internally. This term was coined by Mark Twain. Although reunited between the North and South and as business boomed, strong North—South divisions remained and corruption in both business and politics was common.
The slogan "waving the ______" was an election tactic where a party, usually the Republicans, would nominate an old military figure and/or keep reminding the nation of the Civil War.
This/"Tammany Hall" was group of people in New York City who worked with and for "Boss" Tweed. He was a crooked politician and money-maker. The ring supported all of his deeds. The New York Times finally found evidence to jail Tweed. Without Tweed, the ring did not last. These people, the "Bosses" of the political machines, were very common in America for that time
Credit Mobilier Scandal
This was a railroad construction company that consisted of many of the insiders of the Union Pacific Railway. The company hired themselves to build a railroad and made incredible amounts of money from it. In merely one year, they paid dividends of 348%. In an attempt to cover themselves, they paid key congressmen and even the Vice President stocks and large dividends. All of this was exposed in the scandal of 1872.
In 1875, whiskey manufacturers had to pay a heavy excise tax. Most avoided the tax, and soon tax collectors came to get their money. The collectors were bribed by the distillers. This group robbed the treasury of millions in excise-tax revenues. The scandal reached as high as to the personal secretary of President Grant.
This stated that the government would contract greenbacks from circulation and redeem paper currency in gold at face value beginning in 1879. This was the policy of "contraction"—lessening paper money. It worked, as the amount of money per capita did decrease between 1870-80. This was good for creditors (rich), bad for debtors (poor).
This act was a compromise concerning the coinage of silver designed by Richard P. Bland. It was put into effect in 1878. The act stated that the Treasury had to buy and coin between $2 and $4 million worth of silver bullion each month. The government put down hopes of inflationists when it bought only the legal minimum.
The Grand Army of the Republic, was an organization formed by the Union veterans at the end of the American Civil War in 1866. Its main goal was to aid fellow veterans' families, and to try to obtain pension increases. In 1890, they had over 400,000 members. They also adopted Memorial Day in 1868. The Republican party was greatly influenced by them until 1900.
This was a member of a political machine led by Roscoe Conkling of New York in the late 19th Century. Their goal was to seek power in government. They also supported the spoils system.
It was a Republican political machine, headed by James G. Blaine around 1869. These people pushed Republican ideals and were almost a separate group that existed within the party.
Civil Service Reform
This was the idea that government officials should earn their positions rather than have their jobs given to them. It was supposed to clean up corrupt political machines like Boss Tweed's Tammany Hall who gave government jobs to buddies in exchange for loyalty.
Pendleton Act of 1833
This was what some people called the Magna Carta of civil-service reform. It prohibited, at least on paper, financial assessments of jobholders. It created a merit system of making appointments to government jobs on the basis of aptitude rather than who-you-know, or the spoils system. It set up a Civil Service Commission, charged with administering open competitive examinations to applicants for posts in the classified service. The people were forced, under this law, to take an exam before being hired to a governmental job or position.
This act showered pensions on all Union Civil War veterans who had served for 90 days and who were now unable to do manual labor. This program foreshadowed the 20th century welfare programs.
Money given by the government to businesses. The purpose is for the government to encourage those businesses since they would benefit the entire nation.
This was a railroad across the continent. The Union Pacific (from Omaha, NE) and Central Pacific (from Sacramento, CA) linked together at Promontory Point, Utah in May 1869. The labor was mostly done by Irish "Paddies" and Chinese workers.
He was a railroad tycoon. He earned his 1st fortune as a shipping magnate in New York where he gained the nickname "The Commodore" while shipping. Then, turned to railroads by consolidating the lines from NYC to Chicago.
Interstate Commerce Commission
Set up by the Interstate Commerce Act, the ICC attempted to regulate the railroads. (Several corrupt railroad practices existed including (1) a roller-coaster ride of stock prices, (2) bribes to judges and legislators, (3) free passes to journalists and politicians, (4) a "natural monopoly" (only one railroad line in most places), (5) pools (any competing companies agreed to have their own areas), (6) rebates or kickbacks to powerful shippers, (7) charging high rates for the short haul (small farmers) and low rates for the long haul (big companies).
It had only mild success but served as the first time Washington tried to regulate business for the good of society.
Alexander Graham Bell
He was the inventor of the telephone. Less well known, he was a teacher of the deaf. It was because of his work with the mechanics of sound and speech (teaching the deaf how to speak) that he began his work on the telephone.
Thomas Alva Edison
An extraordinary inventor with over 2300 patents to his name, he was the perfector of the incandescent light bulb, and many other inventions such as the phonograph, mimeograph, dictaphone, and moving pictures. Much of his work was done at his New Jersey lab, Menlo Park.
He was a steel tycoon. He was a master of "vertical integration." He eventually turned to philanthropy and gave huge sums to libraries and arts (_____ Hall and local libraries).
This was a business method where a corporation bought out other businesses (though not competitors) along its line of production. For instance, Carnegie might buy land in the Mesabi Range just for the iron ore, then buy the ships to haul the ore, then buy the railroads to haul it, etc. The companies were not competitors, but Carnegie used them, so he figured he might as well own them.
This was a business method where the company bought out its competitors. For instance, Standard Oil would buy out smaller oil competitors until it controlled nearly all of the oil industry.
John D. Rockefeller
He was an oil tycoon. He owned the Standard Oil Company that eventually controlled at least 90% of American oil. Was a master of "horizontal integration" where he ruthlessly drove others out of business.
He was a banker and financier. He orchestrated several blockbuster deals in railroads, insurance, and banking. He bought Andrew Carnegie's steel operation for $400 million to start the U.S. Steel Company. He symbolized the greed, power, arrogance, and snobbery of the Gilded Age business.
This is a business that essentially is a monopoly - a company with no competition. They could drive smaller businesses to the wall by (1) undercutting prices - they would lower rates so they'd actually take a loss. This thing could afford to take the loss but the small business couldn't and went out of business. Then it would raise prices. Or (2) enjoying "economies of scale" - since these things were bought in huge quantities, they got discounts, and therefore could afford to charge lower rates than small businesses while still making a profit.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
This was an 1890 law attempting to outlaw trusts. It was only slightly successful, if that, since it lacked real teeth. However, combined with the Interstate Commerce Act, 1887, it started the government's attempt to regulate business for the good of society. Also, it foreshadowed the Clayton Act that did have real teeth to it.
These were illustrations by Dana ____ of attractive, athletic, out-going, young women and helped create the new image of the feminine ideal.
Yellow Dog Contracts
These were agreements that employers forced workers to sign where workers pledged not join a union.
They were names that employers kept of union agitators and "trouble makers." This scared workers into inaction since once they were on the list, no company would hire them again.
These were towns essentially owned by the company. Workers worked at the company, lived in company-owned houses, and bought goods at the company store using either scrip (company money) or credit. Between low pay, rent, and scrip/credit purchases, the worker never got ahead.
Haymarket Square incident
This was an 1886 explosion in Chicago during labor disorders that killed several people including police officers. The explosions appeared to be the result of anarchists yet the public largely placed blame on labor unions thus hurt their cause.
A.F.L. (American Federation of Labor)
This was an early national labor union. They let many smaller unions remain independent while the this federation united them all and worked out overall strategy. It focused only on skilled labor (unskilled were on their own). Despite literally thousands of strikes, their success was also only mild, though Labor Day was passed during this time.
He was an English naturalist who wrote the On the Origin of the Species in 1859. His theory stated that in nature the strongest of a species survive, the weaker animals die out, leaving only the stronger to reproduce. Through this process of "natural selection" the entire species improves.
Booker T. Washington
He was an ex-slave who saved his money to buy himself an education. He believed that blacks must first gain economic equality before they gained social equality. He was president of the Tuskegee Institute and he was a part of the Atlanta Compromise. This guy believed that blacks should be taught useful skills so they could gain a financial foothold. He was also famous for his Atlanta "fingers speech" saying blacks and whites could be as separate as the fingers but as one as the hand. He is sometimes criticized for this speech as perhaps giving an okay to segregation.
He was a popular writer of the Post-Civil War time period. He was a Puritan New Englander who wrote more than a hundred volumes of juvenile fiction during his career, most with a "rags-to-riches" theme.
He was America's most popular author, but also a renowned platform lecturer. He mixed "romantic" type literature with comedy to entertain his audiences. In 1873, he wrote The Gilded Age and named the period. The greatest contribution he made to American literature was the way he captured the frontier realism and humor through the common dialect that his characters used. Hemingway once said, "All modern American literature comes from one book by [this guy] called Huckleberry Finn."
A philosophy in which people strongly disliked immigrants and had much patriotism toward native born Americans.
This occurs when wealthy millionaires give back some of the money they have earned to benefit society. The money would be sent to benefit the libraries, the arts, and the colleges. Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller both believed in this
He was a minister who trumpeted the superiority of Anglo-Saxon civilization and summoned Americans to spread their religion and their values to the backward people of the Third World.
Between the 1850's and 1880's, more than 5 million immigrants cascaded into America from the "mother continent." Starting in the 1880's, the "new immigrants" (mainly Italians, Croats, Slovaks, Greeks, and Poles) came swarming into the U.S. This was opposed to the "Old Immigration" of northern Europe (England, Ireland, Germany). New peoples were looked down upon by nativists because they were poor, Catholic, poorly educated, and would work for low wages. They later, however, helped provide the unique cultural diversity that still exists today in the U.S.
This was preached by many people in the 1880s and said the churches should get involved in helping the poor. Some disagreed and didn't think that they should be helped because it was their fault they were poor. This was "Social Darwinism."
This was a house where immigrants came to live upon entering the U.S. At these places, instruction was given in English and how to get a job, among other things. The first one of these was the Hull House, which was opened by Jane Addams in Chicago in 1889. These centers were usually run by educated middle class women. The houses became centers for reform in the women's and labor movements.
In 1859, Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species which dealt with the idea of evolution, an idea that strictly conflicted with the literal interpretation of the Bible known as "Creationism." "[These people]" were people who believed in a system that somehow meshed Darwinism with Creationism. They were disgraced by the church, but as time went by, more liberal thinkers were able to reconcile Darwinism and Christianity.
Women's Christian Temperance Union
The WCTU was organized in 1874 and the white ribbon was the symbol of purity. It was led by Frances E. Willard and the league stood for prohibition (or temperance). In 1919, the 18th Amendment was passed for national prohibition.
They were a political group which began to emerge in 1891. They gained much support from farmers who turned to them to fight political injustice. They used a progressive platform. James B. Weaver ran as their presidential candidate in 1892. They had an impressive voter turnout. They were also known as the People's Party.
Eugene V. Debs
He was a labor leader who helped organize the American Railroad Union. The Union went on strike against the Pullman Palace Car Company in 1894. The strike was put down by armed forces and Debs and other leaders were given six months imprisonment. Debs would later run for president as a Socialist.
Williams Jennings Bryan
He was an eloquent congressman from Nebraska. During the extra Congress session in the summer of 1893, he held the galleries spellbound for three hours as he championed the cause of free silver. Despite his efforts, however, President Cleveland alienated the Democratic silverites. He also ran against McKinley in the presidential elections of 1896 and lost.
He presented a tariff bill in the House, and lost his seat in Congress because of it. He ran on the Republican ticket in the 1896 election and won the presidency while preaching a gold standard platform. He won again in 1900 and was assassinated in 1901.
This was the use of silver and gold in the economic system. This issue divided much of the United States during the late 19th century because the bankers and industrialists wanted at least a limited amount of silver, if not to get rid of it and the farmers wanted unlimited coinage of silver.
Silverites were in favor of silver over gold in terms of currency. States with a lot of silver wanted unlimited coinage of silver. This would cause inflation (rising prices). This was desired because it enabled debtors, such as farmers, to more easily pay off debts. If money was worth very little (as with inflation) it's easier to get more money and therefore pay off one's debt. They were said to like "cheap money."
Depression of 1893
This was the most devastating economic recession of the century. It occurred while Grover Cleveland was president and it lasted for four years. It was caused by overbuilding, over-speculation, labor disorder, and agricultural problems. Because of these things, many businesses collapsed and an abundance of people became unemployed.
This was in 1894 when the company was hurt by the depression. They decided to cut wages about one-third. The workers decided to strike. Attorney General Olney called in the federal troops to break the strike. He thought that the strikers were interfering with the delivery of mail because railroads all over the country went on strike in support of the workers. These railroads carried the mail. The strike affected the entire country.
Cross of Gold Speech
William Jennings Bryan became the hero of the Democratic party in the election of 1896 with his "______" speech. This speech supported the silver standard for currency, as opposed to the gold standard, and it also supported the unlimited coinage of silver.
He was a reporter for the New York Sun. He was a photojournalist. His book, How the Other Half Lives detailed life in the slums. He was trying to bring attention to the situation of the poor to bring about some sort of change.
She was a "muckraker" who wrote an exposé in the magazine McClure's (1921). As a younger woman, in 1904, she made her reputation by publishing the history of the Standard Oil Company, the "Mother of Trusts." In it she blasted Standard Oil for using ruthless tactics to drive competition out of business. All her facts checked out as accurate.
Robert M. LaFollete
He was the governor of Wisconsin, nicknamed "Fighting Bob," and was a progressive Republican leader. His "Wisconsin Idea" was the model for state progressive governments. He used the "brain trust," a panel of experts, to help him create effective, efficient government. He was denied the nomination for the Republicans in favor of Theodore Roosevelt.
He was the author of the sensational novel, The Jungle, published in 1906. His intention was to describe the conditions of canning factory workers. Instead, Americans were disgusted by his descriptions of dirty food production. His book influenced consumers to demand safer canned products and led to the Meat Inspection Act and then the Pure Food and Drug Act.
William Howard Taft
In the 1908 election, he was chosen over William Jennings Bryan to succeed Roosevelt. As president, he approached foreign policy by using America's wealth as leverage. He also brought suits against 90 trusts during his administration. Due to his lack of political skills, he helped divide the Republican Party.
The process of the people petitioning a legislature to introduce a bill. It was part of the Populist party's platform in 1891, along with referendum and recall. These all intended to make the people more responsible for their laws and allow them to make political decisions rather than the legislature.
This occurs when citizens vote on laws instead of the state or national governments. It originated as a populist reform in the Populist Party, but was later picked up by the progressive reform movement.
In this, the people could possibly remove an incompetent politician from office by having a second election.
This movement in America tried to preserve natural resources and stop the rapid destruction of these resources and land. It's reached its pinnacle with Pres. Teddy Roosevelt and the founding of 1st national park, Yellowstone.
This was a nickname given to young reporters of popular magazines who spent a lot of time researching and digging up "muck," hence the name. These investigative journalists were trying to make the public aware of problems that needed fixing and corruption that needed cleaning. This name was given to them by Pres. Roosevelt in 1906.
It was adopted in 1913 shortly after "direct primaries" were adopted. Prior to the amendment, U.S. senators were chosen by state legislators who were controlled by political machines. Elected in such a manner, U.S. senators seemed to answer only to state legislatures but not to the people. This amendment stated that senators were now to be elected by popular vote from the citizens of their state.
Enacted in 1919, this amendment forbade the sale and manufacture of liquor.
This act of 1903 was passed by Congress against the railroad industries. It specifically targeted the use of rebates. It allowed for heavy fining of companies who used rebates and those who accepted them. It was part of the Progressive reform movement.
This 1906 act was signed by Teddy Roosevelt to give the ICC the right to set rates that would be reasonable. It also extended the jurisdiction of the ICC to cover express, sleeping car, and pipeline companies. It prohibited free passes and rebates. It was the first time in U.S. history that a government agency was given power to establish rates for private companies.
Northern Securities Case
______ was a holding company in 1902. The company was forced to dissolve after they were challenged by Roosevelt, his first "trust-bust."
Meat Inspection Act
This law was passed in 1906 after The Jungle grossed out America. It stated that the preparation of meat shipped over state lines would be subject to federal inspection. It was part of the Progressive reforms, which helped the consumer.
Pure Food and Drug Act
It was created in 1906 and was designed to prevent the adulteration and mislabeling of foods and pharmaceuticals. It was made to protect the consumer.
This act was Congress's response to Theodore Roosevelt in 1902. In the law, Washington was to collect money from sales of public lands in western states and use the funds for development of irrigation projects.
This law was signed by Taft in March of 1909 in contrast to campaign promises. It was supposed to lower tariff rates, but Senator Nelson N. Aldrich of Rhode Island put revisions on it that actually raised tariffs. This split the Republican party into progressives (lower tariff) and conservatives (high tariff).
A guy, who was the Secretary of Interior, opened public lands in Wyoming, Montana, and Alaska against Roosevelt's conservation policies. Another guy, who was the Chief of Forestry, supported former President Roosevelt and demanded that Taft dismiss the other guy. Taft, who supported this other guy, dismissed Pinchot on the basis of insubordination. This also divided the Republican party
He was the Democratic representative in the presidential elections of 1912 and 1916. He was elected into the presidency as a minority president. He was born in Virginia and was raised in a very religious family. He was widely known for his political sermons. He was an aggressive leader and believed that Congress could not function properly without good leadership provided by the president. His progressive program was known as the "New Freedom" and his foreign policy program was "Moral Diplomacy." He was president during World War I.
He represented the Socialist Party in the 1908 and 1912 elections. He got a high number of votes in the 1912 election which made the Socialists think that they would win the presidency in 1916
Louis D. Brandeis
He was a prominent reformer and Attorney in the Muller v. Oregon (1908) case that persuaded the Supreme Court to accept the constitutionality of laws protecting women workers saying. That case said that conditions are harder on women's weaker bodies. He wrote the book Other People's Money and How Bankers Use It (1914) that pushed for reform within the banks. He was nominated in 1916 by Woodrow Wilson for the Supreme Court.
This was the progressive policy of Theodore Roosevelt in 1912's Progressive party platform. It favored a more active government role in economic and social affairs. It favored continued consolidation of trusts and labor unions and the growth of powerful regulatory agencies in Washington. It favored women's suffrage and social welfare programs (including minimum-wage laws and "socialistic" social insurance).
This was Wilson's policy that favored the small business, entrepreneurship, and the free functioning of unregulated and un-monopolized markets.
Underwood Tariff (1913)
This substantially reduced import fees. The lost tax revenue would be replaced with an income tax that was implemented with the 16th amendment.
Sixteenth Amendment (1913)
This is known as the income tax amendment. This amendment was passed because earlier the Supreme Court had declared that an income tax was unconstitutional. It set up a "gradual income tax" meaning the more one made, the higher the tax rate that was paid. This was created to shift the burden of taxes to the wealthy.
Federal Reserve Act
This might be the most important piece of economic legislation between the Civil War and the New Deal. It created a regulatory agency for banking with 12 regional reserve districts. Each bank was independent but was controlled by this thing, which was controlled by the public. It controls the amount of money in circulation through its reserves and interest rates.
Federal Trade Commission
The commission is a committee formed to investigate industries engaging in interstate commerce. It was created to stop unfair trade practices and to regulate and crush monopolies.
Clayton Antitrust Act
This act helped to control monopolies by strengthening the Sherman act's list of business practices that were objectionable (such as interlocking directorates). It exempted labor and agricultural organizations from antitrust prosecution and legalized strikes and peaceful picketing.
This was signed by President Wilson in 1916. It granted territorial status to the Philippines and promised to grant independence as soon as a stable government was established ( eventually granted on July 4, 1946)