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Primary structure of a protein and chemical bond
Has a unique sequence of amino acids and is just one strand. All amino acids have the alpha carbon bonded to a hydrogen atom, carboxyl group, and amino group
Secondary structure of a protein
1. å helix: a delicate coil held together by hydrogen bonding between every fourth amino acid.
2. ß pleated sheet: two or more regions of the polypeptide chain connected by hydrogen bonds between the backbones.
Type of bonding: Hydrogen
Tertiary structure of a protein
Refers to the comprehensive 3-D structure of the polypeptide chain of a protein. Hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding, ionic bonding, and disulfide bridge.
Quaternary structure of a protein
Refers to the structure of a protein macromolecule formed by interactions between multiple polypeptide chains. Each polypeptide chain is referred to as a subunit. Proteins with quaternary structure may consist of more than one of the same type of protein subunit. They may also be composed of different subunits. Hemoglobin is an example of a protein with quaternary structure. Hemoglobin, found in the blood, is an iron containing protein that binds oxygen molecules. It contains four subunits: two alpha subunits and two beta subunits.
Secretion of proteins
Many of the proteins produced by a cell will be secreted to be used outside of the cell
A complex protein, such as hemoglobin, consisting of amino acids combined with other substances
Part of the structure of hair, Keratin.
Part of structure of spindle fibers, Tubulin.
Joins together nucleotides to form DNA, DNA polymerase
Induced by the presence of lactose in the lac operon system in E.coli
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