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Marin academies industrial revolution unit key terms and people (betsy's class)

Industrial Revolution

the transformation of the economy, the environment, and living conditions occurring first in England in the 18th century, that resulted from the use of steam engines, the mechanization of manufacturing in factories and innovations in transpiration and communication.

Agricultural Revolution

The transformation of farming that resulted in the eighteenth century from the spread of crops, improvements in the cultivation techniques and livestock breeding, and the consolidation of small holdings into which tenants and sharecroppers were forcibly expelled.

enclosure movement

Rich landowners "enclosed" the land- consolidated their holdings and got parliament to give them title to the commons that in the past had been open to all.

cottage industries

A system in which merchants delivered raw materials to crafts people and then picked up the finished product.


Canals, as well as coastlines and rivers, allowed transportation around Britain affordable and quick rather then a much more costly land rout.

joint-stock companies

An association of individuals in a business enterprise with transferable shares of stock, much like a corporation except that stockholders are liable for the debts of the business. (thank you other user for this info)

mass production

The manufacture of many identical products by the division of labor into many small repetitive tasks. This method was introduced into the manufacture of pottery by Josiah Wedgwood and into the spinning of cotton thread by Richard Arkwright.

division of labor

A manufacturing technique that breaks down a craft into many simple and repetitive tasks that can be performed by unskilled workers. Pioneered in the pottery works of Josiah Wedgwood and other 18th century factories, it greatly increased the productivity of labor and lowered the cost of manufactured goods.


The application of machinery to manufacturing and other activities. Among the first processes to be mechanized were the spinning of cotton thread and weaving of cloth in the late 18th and early 19th century in England.

jenny/spinning jenny

Invented in 1764, the jenny was a machine that drew out cotton fibers and twisted them into thread.

water frame

Invented in 1769 by Richard Arkwright, the machine made thread strong enough to be woven without linen and


Invented in 1785 by Samuel Cropmton, the mule was a mix of the jenny and the water frame and produced strong and thin (better then any human) fiber called muslin.


Invented in 1709 by Abraham Darby, coke= coal with impurities cooked out, used to make low quality iron.


fabric made out of cotton, demand of the people encouraged inventors to mechanize manufacturing, power looms being the first machine in 1815

interchangeable parts

Cheep iron led to mass production of object, manufactures reduced the cost of production by making parts that worked with various items.

puddling process

Invented in 1784 by Henry Cort, created a proses called puddling (stirring molten iron with long rods) helped cook out impurities and made cheep but high quality wrought iron.

steam engine

A machine that turns the energy released by the burning of fuel into motion. Thomas Newcomen built the first crude but working steam engine in 1712. James Watt vastly improved his device in the 1760's and 1770's. steam power was later applied to moving machinery in factories and to powering ships and locomotive.

electric telegraph

A device for rapid, long-distance transmission of information over an electric wire. It was introduced in England and North America in the 1830s and 1840sand replaced telegraph systems that utilized visual signals such as semaphores.


Small town in northern england and became the fastest growing town in history, became very polluted and deceased.

rickets, cholera

Rickets= a bone decease caused by lack of sunshine became endemic in the crowded city. Cholera= a disease that causes massive diarrhea and was spread by the feces in the streets.

turnpike trusts

Private money used to create toll roads.

toll roads

High quality private roads used to move freight.

child labor

Children starting from age 5 or 6 used for work because they were cheep labor and docile, children worked 15-16 hour work days in dangerous conditions and were beaten if they performed a task wrong.

middle class

New group, mostly entrepreneurs with money coming from manufacturing.


individuals who start new businesses, introduce new products, and improve management techniques. (thank you other user for this info)

"invisible hand"

A phrase coined by Adam Smith to describe the process that turns self-directed gain into social and economic benefits for all. (thank you other user for this info)

laissez faire

The idea that government should refrain from interfering in economic affairs. The classic exposition of laissez-fair principles is Adam Smith's "Wealth of Nations" (1776)


European government policies of the 16th,17th, and 18th centuries designed to promote overseas trade between a country and its colonies and accumulate precious metals by requiring colonies to trade only with there mother country. The British system was defined by the Navigation Acts, the French system y laws known as the "Exclusif".

free-market capitalism

Idea invented by Adam Smith that market without economic regulation or intervention by government.


German imposed taxes on British imports in order to keep Britten out of germany.

universal male suffrage

Grand National Consolidated Trade Union- banned workers together to rally for universal male suffrage or mens right to vote and have 8hr work days.

Factory Act of 1833

Act that prohibited the employment of children under the age of 9 in textile mills as well as limited the hours of children age 9-13 to 8 hours a day

Mines Act of 1842

Act that prohibited the employment of women in mines and boys under the age of ten underground.

British East India company

Company that took over much of India and flooded there market with cheep British goods and put the indians out of business.

Suez Canal

Constructed in 1869, shortened distance between europe and Asia, triggered a massive switch from sail power to steam power.

submarine telegraph cables

Insulated copper cables aid along the bottom of a sea or ocean for telegraphic communication. The first short cable was laid across the English Channel in 1851; the first successful transatlantic cable was laid in 1866.

indentured laborer

A person who singes a contract to work for a certain amount of time and then gets there freedom.

tenement buildings

Multistory apartment buildings divided into crowded apartments where working class people lived during the industrial revolution. (thank you other user for this info)

Victorian Age

The reign of Queen Victoria of Great Britain (r. 1837-1901). The term is also used to describe late 19th century society, with its rigid moral standards and sharply differentiated roles for men and women and for the middle-class and working-class people.

Queen Victoria

British Queen, under whose rule the British empire reached the height of its wealth and power, forced to accept a new, virtually powerless role after the laissez fair movement (thank you other user for this info)

"separate spheres"

19th century idea in Western societies that men and women, especially of the middle-class should hsve clearly different roles in society: women as wives, mothers, and homemakers; men as breadwinners and participants in business and politics.


People who worked for women's right to vote.(thank you other user for this info). Emmeline Pankhurst(Britain), Elizabeth Stanton and Susan B. Anthony(USA)


The political ideology that originated in Europe in the 1830's advocated government protection of workers from exploitation by property owners and government ownership of industries. This ideology led to the founding of socialist or labor parties throughout Europe in the second half of the 19th century.

Manifesto of the Communist Party

• Identification:
o 1848
o Written by Marx and Engels to promote abolition of private property and assert the history of the struggle between social classes
o Socialist partiers grew rapidly and the socialist cause was heavily promoted throughout Europe
(thank you other user for this info)

Das Kapital

Karl Marx's book that said all social classes should end and everyone should be equal with equal ownership of businesses.(thank you other user for this info)


The uppermost social class, property owners, business owners, very wealthy.


Working class


Endowed with the rights of citizenship especially the right to vote. (thank you other user for this info)

surplus value

The difference between the total value of production and the subsistence wages paid to workers, (thank you other user for this info)

Benjamin Franklin

Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father. One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity. (thank you other user for this info)

Eli Whitney

United States inventor of the mechanical cotton gin (1765-1825). (thank you other user for this info)

Josiah Wedgwood

English industrialist whose pottery works were the first to produce fine-quality pottery by industrial method.

Richard Arkwright

English inventor and entrepreneur who became the wealthiest and most successful textile manufacturer of the early Industrial Revolution. He invented the water frame, a machine that, with minimal human supervision could spin many strong cotton threads at once.

Samuel Crompton

(1753-1827) Perfected and combined the features of the spinning jenny and water frame to produce the Mule. It produced fine and Strong thread. (thank you other user for this info)

Henry Cort

1784, this man improved coke-iron through process called puddling that produced wrought iron.

James Watt

Scot who invented the condenser and other improvements that made the steam engine a practical source of power for industry and transportation. The watt, an electrical measurement, is names after him.

Robert Fulton

American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815) (thank you other user for this info)

George Stephenson

In 1825, George Stephenson finished the first effective locomotive called rocket. In 1830, his Rocket sped down the track of he just-completed- Liverpool and Manchester Railway at 16 mph. (thank you other user for this info)

Mary Wollstonecraft

English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women. (thank you other user for this info)

Adam Smith

Economist who wrote Wealth of Nations; Laissez-Faire economics. (thank you other user for this info)

Thomas Malthus

An English economist who argued that increases in population would outgrow increases in the means of subsistence (1766-1834). (thank you other user for this info)

Robert Owen

1834, founded Grand National Consolidated Trade Union in order to get male suffrage and shorter work hours, but failed.

Henry Bessemer

British engineer who invented a process to produce steel. (thank you other user for this info)

Alfred Nobel

Swedish chemist remembered for his invention of dynamite and for the bequest that created the Nobel prizes (1833-1896). (thank you other user for this info)

Thomas Edison

American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.

Emmeline Pankhurst

British women's rights activist, and achieved women's right to vote in 1918

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

US women's rights activist, and achieved women's right to vote in 1914

Susan B. Anthony

US women's rights activist, and achieved women's right to vote in 1914

Karl Marx

German journalist and philosopher founder of marxist branch of socialism. He is known for two books: "Manifesto of the Communist Party"(1848) and "Das Kapital"(vol. 1-3)(1867-1894)

Friedrich Engels

Socialist who wrote the Communist Manifesto with Karl Marx in 1848 (1820-1895). (thank you other user for this info)

labor unions

An organization of workers in a particular industry or trade, created to defend the interests of members through strikes or negotiations with employers.

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