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Psych ch 6
Terms in this set (41)
The ability to remember things that we have experienced, imagined, and learned. Consists of changes in the synaptic connections among neurons.
19th-century German psychologist who used himself in a study on memory.
Ebbinghaus memory study
Study by 19th-century German psychologist wherein the psychologist used himself as a subject to study memory. Study consisted of the psychologist composing lists of nonsense syllables and relearning the lists after varying amounts of time to test his memory of them. This psychologist's research dominated memory research for many years.
A computer-like model used to describe the way humans encode, store, and retrieve information.
Entry points for raw information from the senses. No ability to process memories.
Ran a study wherein participants attempted to remember rows of letters after a tone was sounded after varying—short; a second or so—amounts of time. The longer the tone was sounded after the participants viewed the rows, the less information they remembered.
Visual information taken in by sensory registers. Fades quickly without selective attention.
The selection of some incoming information for further processing.
Auditory equivalent of an icon. Lasts longer before fading.
The filtering out of stimuli whilst focusing one's auditory attention in a noisy room. Proposed by Broadbent; modified by Treisman.
Proposed the cocktail-party effect.
New information replacing old information entering the visual registers.
Short-term memory (working memory)
Briefly stores and processes selected information from the sensory registers. Stores as much information as can be repeated in two seconds. Most information is encoded phonologically, but some is encoded visually or by meaning.
The grouping of information into meaningful units for easier handling by short-term memory.
Retaining information in memory simply by repeating it over and over. Can be effective in the short-term but is inefficient for long-term storage.
The portion of memory that is more or less permanent, corresponding to everything we "know." Most information here is encoded by meaning, but some is encoded visually. Information may be stored verbatim but is normally stored in terms of meaning. Information stored here may endure for decades; however, it can also be lost if the storage process is disrupted.
Serial position effect
The finding that when asked to recall a list of items, performance is better for items at the beginning and end of the list.
Improved memory for items at the beginning of a list due to opportunity for rehearsal.
Improved memory for items at the end of a list due to temporary storage in STM.
The linking of new information in the STM to familiar material stored in the LTM. Can help make new memories more durable.
Techniques that make material easier to remember; rhymes, jingles.
A set of beliefs and expectations about something that is based on past experience. May prompt the formation of a stereotype.
The portion of the long-term memory that stores personally experienced events. Plays a crucial role in our ability to anticipate and envision the future. Like a diary. Draws upon several distinct sensory areas of the brain.
The portion of the long-term memory that stores general facts and information. Like a dictionary or encyclopedia.
Memory for information we can readily express in words and are aware of having; these memories can be intentionally retrieved from memory.
Memory for information we cannot readily express in words and may not be aware of having; these memories cannot be intentionally retrieved from memory.
Learned emotional responses to various stimuli. Can affect behavior even without recollection of the experience. After traumatic events, can lead to PTSD. These memories are stored separately from the memory of the even itself.
A person is exposed to a stimulus. They are later shown a fragment of the stimulus. As a result, they are more likely to complete the fragment with the stimulus shown than other plausible items.
Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon (TOT)
Knowing a word, but being unable to immediately recall it. More frequent in stressful situations and as people get older. Often, a similar (in sound or meaning) word will occur to someone in this state.
Explicit and implicit memories
Involve different neural structures and pathways.
A theory that argues that information in memory deteriorates with the passage of time.
Storage of new information is disrupted, most often due to injury.
Learning new information interferes with information already stored in memory.
Information already stored in memory interferes with learning new information.
A neurological disorder that causes severe memory loss. Brain scans of people suffering from this disorder reveal hippocampal damage. May involve below-normal levels of the neurotransmitter acytecholine.
Has a profound effect on what and how easily people remember.
A form of episodic memory. Our recollection of events that happened in our life and when those events took place. This information may be stored according to important events or by event clusters.
Childhood (infantile) amnesia
The difficulty adults have remembering experiences from their first two years of life.
People highly skilled at using memory techniques.
A vivid memory of a certain event and the incidents surrounding it even after a long time has passed. Not always accurate and may undergo periodic revision.
An event, usually traumatic, lost and later recovered. Often unreliable due to suggestion. May be unintentionally fabricated. Suggestive theory increases the risk of this.