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Prob set 1
Terms in this set (43)
1. What endocrine gland secretes epinephrine (be specific)?
The adrenal medullae (within adrenal gland)
2. Which specific endocrine tissue secretes insulin? What else is secreted from these same groups of cells?
Other: glucagon, small amount of somatostatin (GHIH), gastrin
3. Where is erythropoietin (EPO) secreted from?
4. The circadian rhythm correlates to the secretion of _______ from the pineal gland, which is at higher levels during the NIGHT / DAY (circle one).
Higher at night
5. What endocrine tissue secretes leptin?
6. Where are glucocorticoids secreted from?
Zona fasciculata - middle layer of adrenal cortex
7. What nucleus of the brain is the "master clock" involved in circadian rhythms?
8. What hormone is secreted by the parathyroid gland?
9. Renin secretion by the kidney results in what final active hormone that is involved in opposing the effects of dehydration?
10. Hormones secreted by the gastrointestinal tract primarily target the ___________ tract and the ________.
11. What is the integration center for blood sugar homeostasis?
12. Where is atrial natriuretic peptide secreted from? What is it's primary target and general effect?
From the atria of the heart
Effect: natriuresis (sodium excretion via urine)
13. The precursor for cortisol formation is ____________.
Cortisol is a type of glucocorticoid
Precursor = cholesterol
14. During the second half of pregnancy, the _____ secretes the majority of progesterone.
15. What is the most common and important form of mineralocorticoid?
16. Hypervolemia causes an increased secretion of the hormone _________, while hypovolemia causes an increased secretion of three hormones: Which three?
Atrial natriuretic hormone
Anti-diuretic hormone, aldosterone, angiotensin II (function: water conservation)
17. Besides the gonads, where are sex hormones secreted from?
Adrenal cortex - zona reticularis
18. The pancreatic ducts drain the part of the pancreas which is (exocrine / endocrine), while the pancreatic islets produce chemicals which are (exocrine / endocrine ) in nature.
19. What hormone is secreted by the heart?
Atrial natriuretic hormone
20. Which two antagonistic hormones are primarily responsible for calcium homeostasis?
Parathyroid hormone & calcitonin
21. What is the primary function of blood?
- transport substances (oxygen, nutrients, Co2 exchange) to and from the tissues via exchange at the capillary beds
- hemostasis (clotting)
What are the multiple other functions which blood serves?
- transport wastes to liver and kidney
- distribute nutrients
- pH and ion balance
- distribute heat
22. Define Whole Blood and the various subcomponents within:
Whole blood = plasma + formed elements
Plasma = 55%
Formed elements = 45%
23. What plasma protein (big 3) is most involved in hemostasis?
24. How does volume relate to pressure in the blood supply and elsewhere?
Volume changes always cause pressure changes
Increased/decreased blood volume cause pressures within vasculature to increase/decrease
25. If you infuse a person with 2 liters of plasma, the person will be ________-volemic and ________-tensive.
26. What system most directly regulates blood pressure?
27. What other system most directly regulates blood volume and thus pressure?
28. What approximate percentage of plasma is water?
29. What approximate percentage of whole blood is water? Plasma? Formed elements? Plasma Proteins?
Water = 50%
Plasma = 55%
Formed elements= 45%
Plasma Proteins = 4%
30. Besides proteins, what types of solutes are found in plasma? Give examples of each.
Dissolved ions (Na++, K+, Cl-, Iodide, H, bicarbonate)
Organic nutrients (glucose, free A. acids, lipids)
Dissolved gases (O2, Co2)
What part(s) of the body is responsible for breakdown and recycling of the components of the red blood cells when they die?
Spleen and liver
31. What limits erythrocytes from having a longer lifespan?
The fact that they are anucleate - they cannot maintain themselves
32. What is the primary molecule found within erythrocytes?
33. What is the shape and size of a red blood cell? Why this size? Why this shape?
Size: 8 micrometers in diameter, 1-3 mm in thickness
They are this size to "hug" walls of capillaries, but are flexible and can squeeze through
34. Besides the "big three plasma proteins"? What other substances in plasma are also proteins?
Peptide hormones, plasma enzymes
35. What are examples of very distinct mechanisms by which you can become anemic to due hemolytic (destruction) reasons?
Increased rate of destruction/removal of erythrocytes
Genetic defect in globin protein (of hemoglobin) = sickle cell anemia
36. What are some distinct ways in which anemia can occur due to a hypo proliferative (inadequate production) cause?
Inability to produce erythropoietin sufficiently
Stem cells do not react appropriately to erythropoietin
37. What is a way to become anemic that is neither hemolytic nor hypoproliferative?
38. Is whole blood intracellular and/or extracellular fluid?
39. There are approximately 25 trillion (25,000,000,000,000) red blood cells in an average sized human. If red blood cells have an approximate 120 day lifespan, how many red blood cells are destroyed, and thus also formed, in a single day?
40. What is(are) the primary function(s) of red blood cells?
O2 and Co2 exchange at the lungs
What are the big 3 plasma proteins?
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