32 terms

Rocks

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Plastic Deformation
Explains how rocks can bend or fold without melting or breaking
Chemical sedimentary rock
Formed when water evaporates leaving behind minerals crystals that become rocks
Lithification
Process in which sediments compact and cement into sedimentary rocks
Clastic Rocks
Sedimentary rocks made of pieces of other rocks, organic materials or volcanic glass
Compaction
Process by which sediments are pressed together under the weight of overlaying sediments; forces out water and decreases space between sediments
Contact Metamorphism
Occurs in rock next to igneous intrusions (rising magma)
Deposition
Process in which material is laid down
Erosion
Process where wind, water, ice or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another
Extrusive Igneous Rock
Forms when magma/lava cools at or near the Earth's surface; small crystals/fine grained
Foliated
Texture of metamorphic rock in which mineral grains are arranged in bands - ex: slate, gneiss, schist
Granite
Coarse-grained intrusive igneous rock made of mostly light-colored minerals
Igneous Rock
Rock formed from cooled magma or lava
Intrusive Igneous Rock
Forms when magma cools slowly deep inside the Earth; large crystals/coarse grained
Metamorphic Rock
Rock formed by heat and pressure from a different kind of rock
Nonfoliated
Texture of metamorphic rock in which mineral grains grow in size and do not form bands - ex: quartzite, marble, anthracite coal
Organic/Biochemical Sedimentary Rock
Rock formed by or from once living things
Obsidian
Extrusive igneous rock with no holes and a glassy texture
Pumice & Scoria
Extrusive igneous rocks with many holes and pores
Regional Metamorphism
Occurs when large pieces of Earth's crust collide and build pressure horizontally on rocks below
Rock
Naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals, organic material or volcanic glass
Rock Cycle
Model depicting the processes of how one kind of rock can change into another kind of rock
Sedimentary Rock
Rock formed by the deposition of material
Sediment
Small piece of rock or other material
Texture
Quality of a rock based on size, shape and position of the rock grains
Uplift
Movement within the Earth that causes rocks inside Earth to be moved toward the surface
Cementation
Process where minerals dissolved in water crystallize between sediment grains
Weathering
The breaking down of rocks and other materials on the Earth's surface
Volcanic Glass
Rock that forms when lava cools so quickly, no mineral grains form
Name the extrusive igneous rocks from darkest to lightest
Basalt, Andesite, Rhyolite
Name the intrusive igneous rocks from darkest to lightest
Gabbro, Diorite, Granite
Travertine
Limestone formed in caves
Metamorphism
Process that affects the structure or composition of a rock as a results of heat, pressure and/or hot fluids
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