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syllable reduction

occurs in a word with two or more syllables when one or more of the syllables is deleted. weak syllable deletion is a form of this related to unstressed syllables/weak vowels.

consonant sequence reduction

omission of one or more sound segments from two or more contiguous consonants. Can occur within a syllable (clusters) or across syllables (sequences).

prevocalic singleton omission

aka initial consonant deletion. absence of single obstruent consonants that initiate words or syllables; does not apply to clusters

postvocalic singleton omission

aka final consonant deletion. Refers to a CV preference. Omission of a single consonant that terminates a word or syllable. It affects obstruents more often than nasals. Glides do not occur postvocalically in English, and postvocalic liquids typically are subject to another process (vowelization). Does not apply to clusters.


Occurs when a phoneme is added to a word. The most commonly added phoneme is schwa. Cluster creation is a form of epenthesis, as is syllable additions.

5 syllable structure processes

1. syllable reduction
2. consonant sequence reduction
3. prevocalic singleton omission
4. postvocalic singleton omission
5. epenthesis

stridency deletion

occurs when a strident phoneme is either totally omitted or replaced by a non-strident phoneme. Does not apply to distortions in which stridency is maintained.

velar deviation

Occurs when a velar consonant is omitted or replaced by a more anterior phoneme.

liquid omission

occurs when l or r are totally omitted or replaced by a non-liquid phoneme

nasal deviation

occurs when a nasal sound is omitted or replaced by a non-nasal sound in a word

glide deviation

occurs when the glide phoneme is omitted or replaced by a non-glide phoneme

5 class omission processes

1. stridency deletion
2. velar deviation
3. liquid omission
4. nasal deviation
5. glide deviation

substitutions of voicing

1. prevocalic voicing
2. postvocalic devoicing

prevocalic voicing

occurs when voicing is added to a voiceless target preceding a vowel

postvocalic devoicing

occurs when a voiced postvocalic obstruent is replaced with a voiceless phone. This is a normal adult process produced at the end of an utterance.

2 other processes

1. coalescence
2. metathesis


Occurs when two contiguous consonants are replaced by a single consonant which shares features of the two original consonants.


occurs when phonemes or syllables are transposed.

glottal stop replacement

a glottal stop is substituted for any phoneme


any continuant consonant becomes a stop consonant. Doesn't apply to affricates because affricates already contain a stop.


any posterior consonant (velar, glottal) becomes an anterior consonant


a posterior consonant is substituted for a strident or nonstrident anterior consonant


a glide is substituted for any other consonants


a vowel is substituted for a vocalic liquid


a consonant is moved to a different position in a word


an affricate is substituted for a fricative or a consonant cluster, or when a stop is added before a continuant sound.


an affricate is replaced by a continuant or stop


a nonpalatal consonant is replaced by a palatal consonant


the palatal component is lacking from the production of a palatal consonant

labial assimilation

a nonlabial target becomes labial because of another labial consonant

nasal assimilation

a nasal is substituted for a nonnasal consonant because of another nasal in the word

velar assimilation

a velar is substituted for a nonvelar consonant because of another velar in the target word


the repetition of phonemes or syllables

vowel deviations

phonemic substitutions that might affect meaning

frontal lisp

tongue protrusions during productions of sibilants occur. stridency is maintained...not used for theta.

lateral lisp

lateral emission occurs during production of sibilants

substitutions of place

1. fronting
2. backing
3. palatalization
4. depalatalization

substitutions of manner

2. gliding
3. liquid vowelization
4. affrication
5. deaffrication

phonology affects what?

sound classes

A typical assessment must gather enough information to determine

1. whether the prerequisite behaviors for spoken language are present
2. any underlying cause or contributing factors

two subparts of "whether the prerequisite behaviors for spoken language are present

1. status of hearing and speech mechanism
2. status of speech and language skills

why do you need a sound assessment?

so you can make a differential diagnosis

8 criteria for sound assessment

1. background questionnaire and interview
2. evaluation of hearing mechanism
3. standardized receptive/expressive language test
4. standardized sound test
5. oral mechanism screening
6. speech and language sampling
7. supplemental assessments
8. phonological awareness

what does sound mean?

data from a multitude of sources -- thorough

why do you need a standardized (formal)?

to compare to others without disorder -- is there a problem?

why do you need criterion-referenced?

in order to develop therapy goals

why interview and questionnaire

gain info on general development and id factors that may need further exploration

why evaluation of hearing mechanism

sounds and language learned primarily through spoken language input; might be wasting your time if don't do this.

components of hearing screeing

pure-tone audiometric screening and immittance audiometry

why should language be included in a sound assessment?

1. make sure sound not affecting other areas
2. 60% co-occurrence
3. if not enough vocab, can't work on phonology. worry about semantics and MLU.
4. are they going to understand directions for therapy?


morphemes per utterance


total words/total sentences -- gross measure, use when child unintelligible

important info about language during assessment

1. receptive
2. expressive
3. MLU or MRU
4. late talker?

why want to know if late talker?

because all systems need to be age-appropriate before working on phonology

why standardized sound test?

1. relational analysis
2. need to compare to others
3. ID what's wrong

can you have both a phonological disorder and an articulation disorder?

no. one or the other. not both.

variables to consider when choosing artic test or phonological

1. age of child
2. intelligibility

some signs of phonological disorder

older siblings interpret, speaks own language

advantages of sound screening

1. when middle ground, can be faster to determine whether artic or phonology
2. good for large groups

why independent analysis?

1. size and distribution of sounds in child's phonetic and phonemic system
2. determine whether typical for age

How many prevocalic consonants by 32 months?


how many postvocalic consonants by 32 months?


how many different syllable shapes 30-41 months?

6, plus multisyllable words

PCC by 32 months


characterize sounds by 32 months.

should be stable with minimal variation; no errors in earlier developing sounds

should an independent analysis be conducted for a child with a suspected artic disorder?

No, waste of time because relatively few errors

should independent analysis be conducted when unintelligible?

yes, because could be only positive info parent gets.

why language sample?

only way to find out how sound errors change

why oral mech screening?

to determine if structures needed for speech are present and functioning WNL; or if nasality, look later on

why supplemental severity scale?

1. quantify child's speech severity
2. document pre-and post-intervention changes
3. determine eligibility for services

what are four nonstandardized severity tests?

2. PCC
3. ACI
4. RDI


severity measure from happ3


total # of consonants correct/total # in sample


articulation competence index. PCC+RDI/2


relative distortion index; total number of distortion errors

why supplemental stimulability?

1. plan intervention
2. determine prognosis

what is stimulability assessment?

dynamic assessment of articulation change


client's ability to produce the correct articulation of a misarticulated sound when some kind of stimulation is provided by the clinician. Can involve direct imitation, phonetic placement cues, sound modification

is it important to test for stimulability if a phonological disorder is present?

No, bc should be stimulable for almost all sounds

why evaluate vowels?

1. differentiating characteristic between phonology and CAS
2. indicator of hearing loss

why test phonological awareness?

relationship to early reading

should we measure PA if artic disorder?

Yes, if previous history of phono disorder, and articulation disorders can impact spelling

How do you differentially diagnose between phono and DAS?

implement treatment and see if change.

some receptive lang tests


expressive lang test


some standardized sound tests

Happ3, Goldman-Fristoe Test of ARtic, Fisher-logemann, Spat-D, CAAp, photo artic test, Arizona artic proficiency

4 stages of phonological development

1. prelinguistic
2. first words
3. phonemic
4. stabilization

What are first words characterized by?

anterior stops, nasals, glides, CV, VC, CVC, CVCV

age of phonemic period

18 months to 4 years old

phonemic period characterized by

explosion of words, MLU, syntax,pragmatics. rapid increase in vocab forces child to switch from whole-word strategy to rule-based strategy. Relationships between sounds of the adult model and the child's pronunciation becomes more systematic (rule-governed).

during which period do phonological processes usually occur?

phonemic period

age of prelinguistic

birth to one year

characteristics prelinguistic

1. speech-like and nonspeech-like vocalizations
2. speech-like vocalizations become prominent at the end of this stage

definition of phonological process

systematic simplification of an adult phonological pattern; developmentally predictable, rule-governed

characteristics of stabilization of the phonological system

1. pronunciations of phonemes that had been variably produced become stabilized
2. Last phonemes acquired to complete child's phonetic inventory
3. Clusters
4. exposure to reading and writing helps refine sound system

age of stabilization

4 years to 8

order of word shape

monosyllable, bisyllable, trisyllable

order of syllable shape

V, CV, CVCV, VC/CVC, CCVC/CVCC, CCCV/CCCVC (open before closed, singleton before sequence)

order of manner of pattern emergence

1. stops, nasals, glides
2. stridents
3. liquids

frequent backward processes for stridents


frequent backward process for liquids


order of place of pattern emergence

1. labials, alveolars
2. velars, glottal
3. palatal, interdental

place manner together, order

1. anterior stops, nasals, glides
2. anterior stridents
3. velars
4. liquids
5. palatal stridents
6. interdentals

by what age vowels intact?


phonological disorder

language learning disorder; occurs when a child fails to acquire the adult rules of a language; child doesn't have enough features to adequately organize system

phonological process

simplification of an adult pattern; simplifies a sound by reducing features


adult rules of language

phonological disorder usually have beautiful vowel sounds.


normal age for phono disorder


profile for phono disorder

1. restricted range/frequency of features, sound segments and combos
2. restricted syllable shapes, no clusters/sequences
3. relatively well-developed vowel system
4. chronological mismatch
5. static systems

meanign of static in relation to phono disorder

they lack the ability to effect change in their sound systems

role of therapy in phono disorders

expand rules; give them more rules

red flags at 3 years

1. numerous vowel errors, could be apraxia of speech
2. widespread deletion of initial consonants
3. substitution of glottal consonants for a variety of targets
4. substitution of back for front
5. deletion of final consonants

is phonology about mastery or acquisition?


two categories of artic disorders

1. non-developmental processes
2. residual errors persisting beyond age of mastery

type of errors, phono v artic

systemic, isolated

basis of errors, phon v artic

cognitive/linguistic, motoric

focus, phono v artic

organization of system, sound production

emphasis, phono v artic

sound classes, individual sounds


affricates to either a fricative or stop

features typically involved in gliding

liquids...but obstruents can be glided, too


vowel and all consonants that follow


prevocalic consonants


postvocalic consonants




two letters that make one sound


sounds next to each other that don't lose integrity


when sounds change according to morpheme, like cubed and stopped

do sonorants have cognates?

no, they're all voiced.

what are non-nasal sonorants?



same manner and place, different voicing

fricatives characterized by

continuous air

what are the two most important ways to classify vowels?

tongue position and height

are there more lax or tense vowels?



produced by a vocal tract that is more or less unobstructed

member of cognate produced with more muscle tension, greater airflow and shorter duration


by 13 months how many words in receptive vocab


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