occurs in a word with two or more syllables when one or more of the syllables is deleted. weak syllable deletion is a form of this related to unstressed syllables/weak vowels.
consonant sequence reduction
omission of one or more sound segments from two or more contiguous consonants. Can occur within a syllable (clusters) or across syllables (sequences).
prevocalic singleton omission
aka initial consonant deletion. absence of single obstruent consonants that initiate words or syllables; does not apply to clusters
postvocalic singleton omission
aka final consonant deletion. Refers to a CV preference. Omission of a single consonant that terminates a word or syllable. It affects obstruents more often than nasals. Glides do not occur postvocalically in English, and postvocalic liquids typically are subject to another process (vowelization). Does not apply to clusters.
Occurs when a phoneme is added to a word. The most commonly added phoneme is schwa. Cluster creation is a form of epenthesis, as is syllable additions.
5 syllable structure processes
1. syllable reduction
2. consonant sequence reduction
3. prevocalic singleton omission
4. postvocalic singleton omission
occurs when a strident phoneme is either totally omitted or replaced by a non-strident phoneme. Does not apply to distortions in which stridency is maintained.
5 class omission processes
1. stridency deletion
2. velar deviation
3. liquid omission
4. nasal deviation
5. glide deviation
occurs when a voiced postvocalic obstruent is replaced with a voiceless phone. This is a normal adult process produced at the end of an utterance.
Occurs when two contiguous consonants are replaced by a single consonant which shares features of the two original consonants.
any continuant consonant becomes a stop consonant. Doesn't apply to affricates because affricates already contain a stop.
an affricate is substituted for a fricative or a consonant cluster, or when a stop is added before a continuant sound.
a nasal is substituted for a nonnasal consonant because of another nasal in the word
a velar is substituted for a nonvelar consonant because of another velar in the target word
tongue protrusions during productions of sibilants occur. stridency is maintained...not used for theta.
substitutions of manner
3. liquid vowelization
A typical assessment must gather enough information to determine
1. whether the prerequisite behaviors for spoken language are present
2. any underlying cause or contributing factors
two subparts of "whether the prerequisite behaviors for spoken language are present
1. status of hearing and speech mechanism
2. status of speech and language skills
8 criteria for sound assessment
1. background questionnaire and interview
2. evaluation of hearing mechanism
3. standardized receptive/expressive language test
4. standardized sound test
5. oral mechanism screening
6. speech and language sampling
7. supplemental assessments
8. phonological awareness
why do you need a standardized (formal)?
to compare to others without disorder -- is there a problem?
why interview and questionnaire
gain info on general development and id factors that may need further exploration
why evaluation of hearing mechanism
sounds and language learned primarily through spoken language input; might be wasting your time if don't do this.
why should language be included in a sound assessment?
1. make sure sound not affecting other areas
2. 60% co-occurrence
3. if not enough vocab, can't work on phonology. worry about semantics and MLU.
4. are they going to understand directions for therapy?
important info about language during assessment
3. MLU or MRU
4. late talker?
why want to know if late talker?
because all systems need to be age-appropriate before working on phonology
can you have both a phonological disorder and an articulation disorder?
no. one or the other. not both.
advantages of sound screening
1. when middle ground, can be faster to determine whether artic or phonology
2. good for large groups
why independent analysis?
1. size and distribution of sounds in child's phonetic and phonemic system
2. determine whether typical for age
characterize sounds by 32 months.
should be stable with minimal variation; no errors in earlier developing sounds
should an independent analysis be conducted for a child with a suspected artic disorder?
No, waste of time because relatively few errors
should independent analysis be conducted when unintelligible?
yes, because could be only positive info parent gets.
why oral mech screening?
to determine if structures needed for speech are present and functioning WNL; or if nasality, look later on
why supplemental severity scale?
1. quantify child's speech severity
2. document pre-and post-intervention changes
3. determine eligibility for services
client's ability to produce the correct articulation of a misarticulated sound when some kind of stimulation is provided by the clinician. Can involve direct imitation, phonetic placement cues, sound modification
is it important to test for stimulability if a phonological disorder is present?
No, bc should be stimulable for almost all sounds
why evaluate vowels?
1. differentiating characteristic between phonology and CAS
2. indicator of hearing loss
should we measure PA if artic disorder?
Yes, if previous history of phono disorder, and articulation disorders can impact spelling
some standardized sound tests
Happ3, Goldman-Fristoe Test of ARtic, Fisher-logemann, Spat-D, CAAp, photo artic test, Arizona artic proficiency
phonemic period characterized by
explosion of words, MLU, syntax,pragmatics. rapid increase in vocab forces child to switch from whole-word strategy to rule-based strategy. Relationships between sounds of the adult model and the child's pronunciation becomes more systematic (rule-governed).
1. speech-like and nonspeech-like vocalizations
2. speech-like vocalizations become prominent at the end of this stage
definition of phonological process
systematic simplification of an adult phonological pattern; developmentally predictable, rule-governed
characteristics of stabilization of the phonological system
1. pronunciations of phonemes that had been variably produced become stabilized
2. Last phonemes acquired to complete child's phonetic inventory
4. exposure to reading and writing helps refine sound system
order of syllable shape
V, CV, CVCV, VC/CVC, CCVC/CVCC, CCCV/CCCVC (open before closed, singleton before sequence)
order of place of pattern emergence
1. labials, alveolars
2. velars, glottal
3. palatal, interdental
place manner together, order
1. anterior stops, nasals, glides
2. anterior stridents
5. palatal stridents
language learning disorder; occurs when a child fails to acquire the adult rules of a language; child doesn't have enough features to adequately organize system
profile for phono disorder
1. restricted range/frequency of features, sound segments and combos
2. restricted syllable shapes, no clusters/sequences
3. relatively well-developed vowel system
4. chronological mismatch
5. static systems
meanign of static in relation to phono disorder
they lack the ability to effect change in their sound systems
red flags at 3 years
1. numerous vowel errors, could be apraxia of speech
2. widespread deletion of initial consonants
3. substitution of glottal consonants for a variety of targets
4. substitution of back for front
5. deletion of final consonants
two categories of artic disorders
1. non-developmental processes
2. residual errors persisting beyond age of mastery