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39 terms

american govt chp 1 n 2

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public goods
giids abd services that cannot readily be provided by markets either because theya are too expensive for a single individual to buy or because if one person bought them, everyone else would use the, without paying.
free market
Free competition for voluntary exchange among individuals, firms, and corporations.
gross domestic product (gdp)
Measure of exonomic nation's total prioduction of goods and services for a single year, valued in terms of market prices.
externalties
costs imposed on people who are not direct participants in an activity.
income transfers
Government transfers of income from taxpayers to persons regarded as deserving.
democracy
governing system in which the people govern themselves, from the reek term meaning 'rule by the many"
Government
oprganization extending to the whole society that can legitimately use force to carry out its decisions.
legitimacy
widespread acceptance of something as neccessary, rightful, and legally binding
social contract
idea that government originates as an implied contract among individuals who agree to obey laws in exchange for protection of their rights.
democratic ideals
Individual dignity, equality before the law, widespread participation in public decisions, and public decisions by majority rule, with one person having one vote.
paradox of democracy
Potential for conflict between individual freedom and majority rule
limited government
Basic principle that government is limited in what it may do, and each individual has certain rights that government cannot take away
totalitarianism
rule by an elite that exercises unlimited power over individuals in all aspects of life.
Authoritarianism
monopoly of poliitcal power by an individual or small group that otherwise allows people to go about their private lives as they wish
constituational government
A goverment limited by rule of law in its power iover the liverties of individuals
direct democracy
governing system in whice every person parcipates actively in every public decision rahter than delegating decision making to representititves
representative democracy
governing system in which public decision making is delegated to representatitves of the people chosen by popular vote in free, openm and periodic elections.
elitism
Political system in which power is concentrated in the hands of a relatively small group of individuals or institutions.
pluralism
theory that democracy can be achieved through competition among multiple organized groups and that individuals can participate in politics through group memberships and elections; public policy is the result of competition among groups
beliefs
shared ideas about what is true
subcultures
variations on the prevailing values and beliefs in a society
classical liberalism
political philosophy asserting the worth and dignity of the individual and emphasizing the rational ability of human beings to determine their on destinies
capitalism
economic system asserting the individual's right to own private property and to buy, sell, rent,a nd trade that property in a a free market
legal equality
belief that the laws should apply eqaully to all persons.
political equality
belief that every person's vote counts equally
equality of reults
equally sharing of income and material goods regardless of one's efforts in life
social mobility
extent to which people move upward or downward in income and status over a lifetime or over generations
class conflict
conflict between upper and lower social classes over wealth and power
class consciousness
awareness of one's class position and a feeling of political solidarity with others within the same class in opposition to other classes
immigration policy
regulating the entry of non-citizens into the country
aliens
persons residing in a nation who are not citizens
amnesty
government forgiveness of a crime, usually granted to a group of people
illegal immigration
the unlawful entry of a person into a nation
passport
evidence of u.s. citizenship, allowing people to travel abroad and reenter the united states
visa
a document or stamp on a passport allowing a person to visit a foreign country
secular
in politics, a reference to opposistion to religious practives and symbols in public life
conservatism
belief in the value of free markets, limited government, and individual self-reliance in economic affairs, combined with a belief in the value of tradition, law, and morality in social affairs
ideology
consistent and integrated systems of ideas, values, and beliefs
liberalism
belief in the value of strong government to provide economic securety and its protection for civil rights comvined with a velief in personal freedom from government intervention in social conduct.