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Ch. 7

STUDY
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trophic (feeding biology)
shared evolutionary histories, creating taxa such as vertebrate animals, insects, coniferous trees, & orchids.
autotrophs
self-feeders, use inorganic sources of both carbon & energy
photosynthetic autotrophs
carbon dioxide as a source of carbon & light as a source of energy to synthesize organic compounds
organic compounds
molecules that contain carbon, such as sugars, amino acids, 7 fats
chemosynthetic autotrophs
synthesize organic molecules using CO2 as a carbon source & inorganic chemicals, such as hydrogen sulfide as their source of energy
heterotrophs
other feeders are organisms that use organic molecules both as source of carbon & as a source of energy
prokaryotes
have cells with no membrane-bound nucleus or organelles including bacteria & archaea
archaea
are prokaryotes distinguished from bacteria on the basis of structural, physiological & other biological features
rhodopsin
light-absorbing pigments found in animal eyes & in the bacteria & archaea
photosynthesis autotrophs synthesize organic molecules using CO2 as a source of
carbon & light as an energy source
photosynthetically active radiation (PAR)
visible light carrying sufficient energy to drive the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis, but not so much as to destroy organic molecules
Photon flux density
number of photons striking a square meter surface each second
rubisco
is phosphoglyceric acid, or PGA, a 3-carbon acid
C3 photosynthesis
photosynthetic pathway where plants like rice, wheat & soybeans are C3 plants
photorespiration
occurs in light & consumes energy & produces CO2
C4 photosynthesis
separates carbon fixation & light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis into separate cells
bundle sheath
in C4 plant, the acids produced during carbon fixation diffuse to specialized cells surrounding a structure
CAM photosynthesis
crassulacean acid metabolism is largely found in succulent plants in arid & semiarid environments & among epiphytes growing in the canopies of forests
chemosynthetic autotrophs synthesize organic molecules using CO2 as a
carbon source & inorganic molecules as an energy source
heterotrophic organisms use organic molecules both as a
source of carbon & as an energy source
herbivores
organisms that eat plants
carnivores
organisms that mainly eat animals
detritivores
organims that feed on nonliving organic matter, ususally the remains of plants
ecological stoichiometry
concerns the balance of multiple chemical elements in ecological interactions
mullerian mimicry
noxious organisms (stinging bees & waps) mimic each other
batesian mimicry
king snakes mimic coral snakes & syrphid flies mimic bees & wasp
size-selective predation
predators select predators by size because they must catch & subdue their prey
the rate at which organisms can take in energy
is limited
irradiance
photo flux density required to produce the maximum rate of photosynthesis
net photosynthesis
can be measured as total, or gross, CO2 uptake during photosynthesis minus the CO2 produced by the pant's own respiration
functional response
gradually increase the amount of food available to a hungry animal, its rate of feeding increases & then levels off
optimal foraging theory models
feeding behavior as an optimizing process
optimal foraging theory
the prediction spawned an area of ecological inquiry
principle of allocation
inevitable conflict between energy allocations
optimization
general prediction is that predators will continue to add different types of prey to their diet until the rate of energy intake reaches a maximum
photosynthetic autotrophs synthesize organic molecules using
CO2 as a source of carbon & light as an energy source
chemosynthetic autotrophs synthesize organic molecules using
CO2 as a carbon source & inorganic molecules as an energy source
heterotrophic organisms use organic molecules both as
a source of carbon & as an energy source
the rate at which organisms can take in energy
is limited
optimal foraging theory models feeding behavior as
an optimizing process
photosynthesis' formula
CO2 + H2O -> C6H12O6 + O2
C3 Plants
maples, bluegrass & wheat - carbon fixation in plants - midrange temperatures - less sensitive to cold temperatures
C4 Plants
corn, crab grass - more efficient at conserving water - better in hot, dry areas
CAM plants
fix CO2 at night - reduce water loss for arid & stressful environments - Aloe & Pineapples
chemosynthesis
CO2 for carbon source, use chemicals for energy rather than sunlight - sulfur hydrogen sulfide ammonium nitrite iron hydrogen carbon monoxide
ecological pyramid
1. secondary carnivores & tertiary consumers
2. primary carnivores & secondary consumers
3. herbivores & primary consumers
4. producers
optimal forging theory
describes the parameters by which feeding is most efficient in terms of energy expended vs energy obtained