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___ provides the raw materials and nutrients needed by the cell to use to reproduce and build new tissue


the energy needed in cell production and tissue building is release from food in the process of ___ ____

cell respiration

the function of the ___ ____ is to change these complex organic nutrient molecules into simple organic and inorganic molecules that can be absorbed into the blood or lymph to be transported to cells

digestive system

divisions of the digestive system are the ___ ___ and the ___ ___

alimentary tube and the accessory organs

___ ___ extends from the mouth to the anus

alimentary tube

the alimentary tube consists of what?

oral cavity phyarnx, esophagus, stomach, small intestines and the large intestines(colon)

the layer of the alimentary tube that produces digestive secretions is the ___


the layer that contains Messiners plexus(automomic nerve networks) to regulate secretions is the ____


the layer of the alimentary canal tube that is responsible for peristalasis is the ___ ___ ___

external muscle layer

most of the absorption of nutrients takes place in the __ ___

small intestines

undigested material primarily cellulose is eliminated by the __ ___

large intestines

what are the accessory organs that each contribute to the digestive process?

teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder and pancreas

___ ___ is the breaking up of food into smaller pieces with more surface area

mechanical digestion

what are examples of mechanical digestion?

chewing, contractions of the small intestines, the churning of the stomach

__ ___ is the process of changing complex food molecules into simpler molecules

chemical digestion

what are some examples of chemical digestion?

action of lipase on fats, action of trypsin on protein, and action of amylase on starch

What are the 3 types of complex organic molecules found in food?

carbohydrates, proteins and fats

____ such as starches and disacchirides are digested to monsacchrides


the end product of carbohydrate digestion are monosacchrides which are ___ ___ and ___

glucose, fructose and galactose

the end product of fat digestion are ___ and ___

fatty acids and glyceral

the end products of protein digestion are __ __

amino acids

food enter the __ __ or ___ __ by the way of the mouth

oral cavity or buccal cavity

within the oral cavity are the __ and the __ and the openings of the ducts of the ___ ___

teeth tongue salivary glands

the function of the teeth is for ___


___ teeth is a complete set of permanent teeth


part of the tooth that provides a hard chewing surface is the ___


__ ___ is the part that contains the blood vessels and the nerves

pulp cavity

____ ____ is the part of that anchors the tooth in a socket

periodontal membrane

___ forms the roots of a tooth


the pulp cavity contains the blood vessels and branches of the ____ ____

trigeminal nerve(5thcranial)

hard chewing surface is provided by the ___ which is similar to bone


teeth are found in sockets in the ____ and ___

mandible and maxillae

____ is made up of skeletal muscle that is innervated by the hypoglossal nerve(12th cranial)


what is the function of the hypoglossal nerves?

movement of the tongue

whats the functions of the tongue?

chewing, tasting and swallowing

the sensory nerves for taste are the ___ and the ____

facial(7th) glosspharyngeal(9th)

digestion secretion in the oral cavity is ___


secretion of __ is continuous


presence of food in the mouth ___ the secretion of saliva


secretion of saliva is a _______ response innvervated by the glossopharygeal nerve and facial nerve


sympathetic response in stress ___ saliva


__ is mostly water which is used to dissolve the food


___ is the part of the saliva that inhibits the growth of bacteria


____ is part of the saliva that digest starch to maltose


the salivary glands located just in front of the ears is the ___ ___

parotid glands

____ ____ located at the posterior concerns of the lower jaw

submandibular glands

____ _____ located below the floor of the mouth

sublingual glands

no digestion takes place, its only function is swallowing


the reflex center for swallowing is in the ____


____ is when the tongue pushes the food towards the pharnx


the ____ contracts and propels the food into the esophagus


peristalsis of the ____ propels food towards the stomach


___ is a muscular tube that takes food from the pharynx to the stomach


back up of food from the stomach to the esophagus is prevented by the lower esophageal _____, if this does not close sufficently you get splash back into the esophagus, which is called ____

sphincter heartburn

serous membrane that covers the abdominal organs


serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity


peritoneum and mesentery is actually a _____ membrane


___ is located in the upper left quad of the abdominal cavity, to left of the liver and in front of the spleen


the stomach is a reservior for ___


the stomach is where both _____ and _____ digestion takes place

mechanical and chemical

in the stomach the ____ is the opening of the esophagus


in the stomach the ____ is the portion above the level of this opening


___ ____ surrounds the junction of the duodenum and the pylorus

pyloric sphincter

most digestion takes place in the ____


backup of food from the small intestines is prevented by the ____ ____

pyloric sphincter

____ are folds that fill and flatten and permit explanison without tearing


___ ___ are secreted by the stomach, its a parasympathetic response

gastric juices

part of the gastric juices that protects the stomach lining is ___


part of the gastric juice that begins the digestion of protein is ____


one of the function of the stomach is that its a ____ for food during digestion


one of the function of the stomach is that is permits ____ to take place gradually


one on the functions of the stomach is it begins the digestion of ____


one inch in diameter and about twenty feet long, extends from the stomach to the cecum of the large intestines

small intestines

____ is the first part of the small intestines, common bile duct opens here


the common bile duct carries the ___ and the ___ ___

bile pancreatic juice

what are the parts of the small intestines?

duodenum, jujunum and the ileum

digestion is completed in the ___ ___ and the end products of digestion are absorbed into the ___ and the ___

small intestines blood lymph

what are the three sources of digestive secretions that function within the small intestines?

liver, pancreas, and small intestines

surface area for absorption is increased in the small intestines by ___ and the ___

circulars villi

the digestive organ that extends from the stomach to the colon

small intestines

upper right and the center of the abdominal cavity


in the liver its only digestive function is the production of ___


___is produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder


the ___ duct takes the bile out of the liver to cystic duct, which unites with the common bile duct which then takes the bile to the ___

hepatic duodenum

the common bile duct opens up into the ___


the digestive function of bile is to emulsify ___ in the small intestines


the production of bile is stimulated by the ___ ___, which is produced by the duodenum when food enters the small intestines

hormone secretion

___ is located on the under surface of the right lobe of the liver


the gallbladder ___ bile from the liver until it is needed by the small intestines


_____ stimulates contractions in the gallbladder which then secrete the bile into the small intestines


what are the functions of the gallbladder?

stores bile, concentrate bile, and contract to propel bile to the duodenum

bile enters and leaves the gallbladder by way of the ___ ___

cystic duct

___ is located between the duodenum and the spleen


in the pancreas the ____ glands produce enzymes that are involved in digestion


pancreatic enzyme ___ digests starch to maltose


____ converts fats to fatty acids and glyceral


____ and ___ digests proteins

trypsin and pepsin

___ digests disacharides


the enzymes of the pancreas contribute to the digestion of ___ ___ and ___

proteins, fats and starches

___ digest starch


___ digest lactose


___ helps digest proteins


___ helps digest fats


when chyme enters the small intestines ___ stimulates the production of bicarb juices by the pancreas


_____ stimulates the secretion of the pancreatic enzymes


____ are digested by enzymes from the salivary glands, pancreas and small intestines


____ are digested by enzymes from the stomach, pancreas and small intestines


___ is increase secretion of intestinal enzymes is stimulated by food in the duodenum


the intestinal enzymes are ____, _____, _____, and _____

peptidase sucrose maltose and lactose

peptidase digest proteins by breaking polypeptides to ___ ____

amino acids

sucrose maltose and lactose digest _____


most absorption of the end products takes place in the ___ ____

small intestines

surface area of absorption is increase in the small intestines by _____, ___ ____, and ____

microvilli, plica circulars, and villia

water soluble nutrients are absorbed into the ___ in the capillary networks


an example of water soluble vitamin that is absorbed in the capillary networks by active transport is ____


water moves in the capillaries by ____


negative ions move by ____ or ____ tranport

passive r active

nutrients are absorbed into either ____ or ____ networks within the villi

lacteals capillary

fat solubles end products are absorbed in the ____


water soluble end products are absorbed in the ___ ___

capillary networks

___ from the capillary networks travel first to through the portal veins of the liver before returning to the heart


large intestines is also called the ___


the ___ extends from the illeum to the anus


___ is the digestive organ that encircles the small intestines


___ is the part of the colon which the small intestines empty


the cecum junctions with the illeum at the ____ valve


closure of this valve prevents the backflow of fecal material

ileocecal valve

___ is attached to the cecum


____ is when fecal material becomes impacted within it


no digestion takes place in the ____


remainder of the colon consists of ____, ______, and _____

ascending transverse and descending

part of the colon that surrounds the anus is the __ ___

anal canal

____ colon is directly inferior to the stomach and liver


____ ___ turns medially at the level of the pelvic bone

sigmoid colon

the functions of the colon are : absorption of ___, absorption of ___ and ____ , and ___ of undigested materials

water vitamins minerals elimination

vitamins in the colon especially vitamin __ are produced in the colon by the normal bacterial flora


___ ___ also inhibits the growth of pathogens

normal flora

elimination is accomplished by ____ ____

defecation reflex

___ ____ is a spinal cord reflex that may be controlled voluntarily

defecation reflex

the stimulus of the defecation relex is ___ of the retum


the effector of the defecation reflex is the rectum when it ____


___ ___ ____ it relaxes permitting defecation, involuntary

internal anal sphincter

___ ___ ___ surrounds the internal anal sphincter, voluntary control of defecation by contracing

external anal sphincter

__ is a remarkable organ only 2nd to the brain in its capacity of functions


the liver stores the minerals ___ and ____

iron and copper

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