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digestive system

STUDY
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___ provides the raw materials and nutrients needed by the cell to use to reproduce and build new tissue
food
the energy needed in cell production and tissue building is release from food in the process of ___ ____
cell respiration
the function of the ___ ____ is to change these complex organic nutrient molecules into simple organic and inorganic molecules that can be absorbed into the blood or lymph to be transported to cells
digestive system
divisions of the digestive system are the ___ ___ and the ___ ___
alimentary tube and the accessory organs
___ ___ extends from the mouth to the anus
alimentary tube
the alimentary tube consists of what?
oral cavity phyarnx, esophagus, stomach, small intestines and the large intestines(colon)
the layer of the alimentary tube that produces digestive secretions is the ___
mucosa
the layer that contains Messiners plexus(automomic nerve networks) to regulate secretions is the ____
submucosa
the layer of the alimentary canal tube that is responsible for peristalasis is the ___ ___ ___
external muscle layer
most of the absorption of nutrients takes place in the __ ___
small intestines
undigested material primarily cellulose is eliminated by the __ ___
large intestines
what are the accessory organs that each contribute to the digestive process?
teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder and pancreas
___ ___ is the breaking up of food into smaller pieces with more surface area
mechanical digestion
what are examples of mechanical digestion?
chewing, contractions of the small intestines, the churning of the stomach
__ ___ is the process of changing complex food molecules into simpler molecules
chemical digestion
what are some examples of chemical digestion?
action of lipase on fats, action of trypsin on protein, and action of amylase on starch
What are the 3 types of complex organic molecules found in food?
carbohydrates, proteins and fats
____ such as starches and disacchirides are digested to monsacchrides
carbohydrate
the end product of carbohydrate digestion are monosacchrides which are ___ ___ and ___
glucose, fructose and galactose
the end product of fat digestion are ___ and ___
fatty acids and glyceral
the end products of protein digestion are __ __
amino acids
food enter the __ __ or ___ __ by the way of the mouth
oral cavity or buccal cavity
within the oral cavity are the __ and the __ and the openings of the ducts of the ___ ___
teeth tongue salivary glands
the function of the teeth is for ___
chewing
___ teeth is a complete set of permanent teeth
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part of the tooth that provides a hard chewing surface is the ___
enamel
__ ___ is the part that contains the blood vessels and the nerves
pulp cavity
____ ____ is the part of that anchors the tooth in a socket
periodontal membrane
___ forms the roots of a tooth
dentine
the pulp cavity contains the blood vessels and branches of the ____ ____
trigeminal nerve(5thcranial)
hard chewing surface is provided by the ___ which is similar to bone
enamel
teeth are found in sockets in the ____ and ___
mandible and maxillae
____ is made up of skeletal muscle that is innervated by the hypoglossal nerve(12th cranial)
tongue
what is the function of the hypoglossal nerves?
movement of the tongue
whats the functions of the tongue?
chewing, tasting and swallowing
the sensory nerves for taste are the ___ and the ____
facial(7th) glosspharyngeal(9th)
digestion secretion in the oral cavity is ___
saliva
secretion of __ is continuous
saliva
presence of food in the mouth ___ the secretion of saliva
increases
secretion of saliva is a _______ response innvervated by the glossopharygeal nerve and facial nerve
parasympathetic
sympathetic response in stress ___ saliva
reduces
__ is mostly water which is used to dissolve the food
saliva
___ is the part of the saliva that inhibits the growth of bacteria
lysozymes
____ is part of the saliva that digest starch to maltose
amylase
the salivary glands located just in front of the ears is the ___ ___
parotid glands
____ ____ located at the posterior concerns of the lower jaw
submandibular glands
____ _____ located below the floor of the mouth
sublingual glands
no digestion takes place, its only function is swallowing
pharynx
the reflex center for swallowing is in the ____
medulla
____ is when the tongue pushes the food towards the pharnx
swallowing
the ____ contracts and propels the food into the esophagus
pharynx
peristalsis of the ____ propels food towards the stomach
esophagus
___ is a muscular tube that takes food from the pharynx to the stomach
esophagus
back up of food from the stomach to the esophagus is prevented by the lower esophageal _____, if this does not close sufficently you get splash back into the esophagus, which is called ____
sphincter heartburn
serous membrane that covers the abdominal organs
mesentery
serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity
peritoneum
peritoneum and mesentery is actually a _____ membrane
continuous
___ is located in the upper left quad of the abdominal cavity, to left of the liver and in front of the spleen
stomach
the stomach is a reservior for ___
food
the stomach is where both _____ and _____ digestion takes place
mechanical and chemical
in the stomach the ____ is the opening of the esophagus
orifice
in the stomach the ____ is the portion above the level of this opening
fundus
___ ____ surrounds the junction of the duodenum and the pylorus
pyloric sphincter
most digestion takes place in the ____
pylrous
backup of food from the small intestines is prevented by the ____ ____
pyloric sphincter
____ are folds that fill and flatten and permit explanison without tearing
rugae
___ ___ are secreted by the stomach, its a parasympathetic response
gastric juices
part of the gastric juices that protects the stomach lining is ___
mucus
part of the gastric juice that begins the digestion of protein is ____
pepsin
one of the function of the stomach is that its a ____ for food during digestion
reservoir
one of the function of the stomach is that is permits ____ to take place gradually
digestion
one on the functions of the stomach is it begins the digestion of ____
proteins
one inch in diameter and about twenty feet long, extends from the stomach to the cecum of the large intestines
small intestines
____ is the first part of the small intestines, common bile duct opens here
duodenum
the common bile duct carries the ___ and the ___ ___
bile pancreatic juice
what are the parts of the small intestines?
duodenum, jujunum and the ileum
digestion is completed in the ___ ___ and the end products of digestion are absorbed into the ___ and the ___
small intestines blood lymph
what are the three sources of digestive secretions that function within the small intestines?
liver, pancreas, and small intestines
surface area for absorption is increased in the small intestines by ___ and the ___
circulars villi
the digestive organ that extends from the stomach to the colon
small intestines
upper right and the center of the abdominal cavity
liver
in the liver its only digestive function is the production of ___
bile
___is produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder
bile
the ___ duct takes the bile out of the liver to cystic duct, which unites with the common bile duct which then takes the bile to the ___
hepatic duodenum
the common bile duct opens up into the ___
duodenum
the digestive function of bile is to emulsify ___ in the small intestines
fats
the production of bile is stimulated by the ___ ___, which is produced by the duodenum when food enters the small intestines
hormone secretion
___ is located on the under surface of the right lobe of the liver
gallbladder
the gallbladder ___ bile from the liver until it is needed by the small intestines
stores
_____ stimulates contractions in the gallbladder which then secrete the bile into the small intestines
cholecystokinin
what are the functions of the gallbladder?
stores bile, concentrate bile, and contract to propel bile to the duodenum
bile enters and leaves the gallbladder by way of the ___ ___
cystic duct
___ is located between the duodenum and the spleen
pancreas
in the pancreas the ____ glands produce enzymes that are involved in digestion
exocrine
pancreatic enzyme ___ digests starch to maltose
amylase
____ converts fats to fatty acids and glyceral
lipase
____ and ___ digests proteins
trypsin and pepsin
___ digests disacharides
sucrose
the enzymes of the pancreas contribute to the digestion of ___ ___ and ___
proteins, fats and starches
___ digest starch
amylase
___ digest lactose
lactase
___ helps digest proteins
peptidase
___ helps digest fats
lipase
when chyme enters the small intestines ___ stimulates the production of bicarb juices by the pancreas
secretin
_____ stimulates the secretion of the pancreatic enzymes
cholecystokinin
____ are digested by enzymes from the salivary glands, pancreas and small intestines
carbohydrates
____ are digested by enzymes from the stomach, pancreas and small intestines
proteins
___ is increase secretion of intestinal enzymes is stimulated by food in the duodenum
absorption
the intestinal enzymes are ____, _____, _____, and _____
peptidase sucrose maltose and lactose
peptidase digest proteins by breaking polypeptides to ___ ____
amino acids
sucrose maltose and lactose digest _____
disacchrides
most absorption of the end products takes place in the ___ ____
small intestines
surface area of absorption is increase in the small intestines by _____, ___ ____, and ____
microvilli, plica circulars, and villia
water soluble nutrients are absorbed into the ___ in the capillary networks
blood
an example of water soluble vitamin that is absorbed in the capillary networks by active transport is ____
glucose
water moves in the capillaries by ____
osmosis
negative ions move by ____ or ____ tranport
passive r active
nutrients are absorbed into either ____ or ____ networks within the villi
lacteals capillary
fat solubles end products are absorbed in the ____
lacteals
water soluble end products are absorbed in the ___ ___
capillary networks
___ from the capillary networks travel first to through the portal veins of the liver before returning to the heart
blood
large intestines is also called the ___
colon
the ___ extends from the illeum to the anus
colon
___ is the digestive organ that encircles the small intestines
colon
___ is the part of the colon which the small intestines empty
cecum
the cecum junctions with the illeum at the ____ valve
ileocecal
closure of this valve prevents the backflow of fecal material
ileocecal valve
___ is attached to the cecum
appendix
____ is when fecal material becomes impacted within it
appendicitis
no digestion takes place in the ____
colon
remainder of the colon consists of ____, ______, and _____
ascending transverse and descending
part of the colon that surrounds the anus is the __ ___
anal canal
____ colon is directly inferior to the stomach and liver
transverse
____ ___ turns medially at the level of the pelvic bone
sigmoid colon
the functions of the colon are : absorption of ___, absorption of ___ and ____ , and ___ of undigested materials
water vitamins minerals elimination
vitamins in the colon especially vitamin __ are produced in the colon by the normal bacterial flora
K
___ ___ also inhibits the growth of pathogens
normal flora
elimination is accomplished by ____ ____
defecation reflex
___ ____ is a spinal cord reflex that may be controlled voluntarily
defecation reflex
the stimulus of the defecation relex is ___ of the retum
stretching
the effector of the defecation reflex is the rectum when it ____
contracts
___ ___ ____ it relaxes permitting defecation, involuntary
internal anal sphincter
___ ___ ___ surrounds the internal anal sphincter, voluntary control of defecation by contracing
external anal sphincter
__ is a remarkable organ only 2nd to the brain in its capacity of functions
liver
the liver stores the minerals ___ and ____
iron and copper