AP Psychology Chapter 9: Developmental Psychology Vocabulary
Terms in this set (76)
Study of physical, intellectual, social, and moral changes across the lifespan from conception to death.
Deals with the extent to which heredity and the environment each influence behavior.
Deals with the issue of whether development is a gradual, continuous process or a sequence of separate stages.
Deals with the issue of whether or not personality traits present during infancy endure throughout the lifespan.
Different age groups are tested at the same time.
Same participants are tested multiple times with same or similar tests.
Combines cross-sectional and longitudinal to correct for cohort effect.
Observed group differences based on the era when people were born and grew up, exposing them to particular experiences that may affect results of cross-sectional studies.
A time interval during which specific stimuli have a major effect on development that the stimuli do not produce at other times.
Period of development that begins with fertilization, or conception, and ends with birth.
A fertilized ovum with the genetic instructions for a new individual,
normally contained in 46 chromosomes.
The developmental prenatal stage (from about 2 weeks through 2 months after fertilization) when most organ development begins.
The developing human organism from about 9 weeks after conception to birth
when organ systems begin to interact; sex organs and sense organs become refined.
Harmful substances (drugs or viruses) during the prenatal period that can cause birth defects.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
A cluster of abnormalities that occurs in babies of mothers who drink alcoholic beverages during pregnancy, which includes low intelligence, small head with flat face, misshapen eyes, flat nose, and thin upper lip, as well as some degree of intellectual impairment.
Newborn baby from birth to 1 month old; shows reflexive behavior.
The simplest form of behavior.
The newborn's tendency to move its head when stroked on the cheek, turn toward the stimulus as if searching for a nipple, and open its mouth.
The automatic response of drawing in anything at the mouth.
Automatic contraction of throat muscles that enables food to pass into the esophagus without choking.
Infant closes his or her fingers tightly around an object put in hand.
Moro or Startle Reflex
When exposed to a loud noise or sudden drop, the neonate automatically arches his or her back, flings his or her limbs out, and quickly retracts them.
Decreasing responsiveness with repeated presentation of the same stimulus.
The early adolescent period, marked by accelerated growth and onset of the ability to reproduce.
Primary Sex Characteristics
The reproductive organs (ovaries, uterus, and testes) and external genitals (vulva and penis).
Secondary Sex Characteristics
The nonreproductive sexual characteristics including developed breasts in females; facial hair, Adam's apple, and deepened voice in males;
and pubic hair and underarm hair in both.
First menstrual period at about age 12 1/2, marks female fertility. Male
fertility is marked by ejaculation of semen with viable sperm at about age 14.
Adolescent brain changes include selective pruning of dendrites and development of emotional limbic system and frontal lobes.
The cessation of the ability to reproduce accompanied by a decrease in production of female sex hormones; occurs at about age 50.
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
Four sequential and discontinuous stages
(sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational)—deals with how children think.
Framework of basic ideas and preconceptions about people, objects, and
events based on past experience in long-term memory.
Process by which we incorporate new information into our existing cognitive structures or schemas.
Process by which we modify our schemas to fit new information.
Piaget's first stage (0-2 years) during which the infant experiences the world through senses and action patterns; progresses from reflexes to object permanence and symbolic thinking.
Awareness that objects still exist when out of sight.
Piaget's second stage of cognitive development (2-7 years) during which the child represents and manipulates objects with symbols (language) and is egocentric.
Seeing the world from one's own perspective; the inability to see reality from the perspective of another person, characteristic of the preoperational child.
Belief of a preoperational child that all things are living.
The belief of the preoperational child that all objects are made by people.
Concrete Operational Stage
Piaget's third stage of cognitive development (7-12 years) during which the child develops simple logic and masters conservation concepts.
Changes in the form of an object do not alter physical properties of mass, volume, and number.
Formal Operational Stage
Piaget's fourth stage of cognitive development (12+ years) during which the child begins to think logically about abstract concepts and engages in hypothetical thinking.
The process of absorbing information from a specified social environmental context.
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
The range between the level at which a child can solve a problem working alone with difficulty, and the level at which a child can solve a problem with the assistance of adults or more-skilled children.
A fatal degenerative disease in which brain neurons progressively die, causing loss of memory, reasoning, emotion, control of bodily functions, then death.
Growth in the ability to tell right from wrong, control impulses, and act ethically.
When at the preoperational stage of cognitive development
Do the right thing to
Stage 1—avoid punishment, obey authority
Stage 2—further self-interests, gain reward
When at the concrete operational stage of cognitive development or formal operational stage for most people
Stage 3—conform, live up to expectations of others
Stage 4—maintain law and order, do your duty
Reached by only some people in the formal operational stage
Stage 5—social contract, to promote the society's welfare
Stage 6—to promote justice
Behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions transmitted from one generation to the next within a group of people who share a common language and environment.
A close emotional bond or relationship between the infant and the caregiver.
After absence baby is happy to see mother, receptive to her contact.
after absence baby is angry and rejecting of mother, avoids her, ignores her, or behaves inconsistently.
An infant's natural disposition to show a particular mood at a particular intensity for a specific period.
Consciousness of oneself as a person.
Observing the behavior of others in social situations to obtain information or guidance.
Authoritarian Parenting Style
Sets up absolute and restrictive rules accompanied by punishment for disobedience.
Authoritative Parenting Style
Focuses on flexible rules for which reasons are generally given. Parents are warm and nurture independence within guidelines.
Permissive Parenting Style
Sets no firm guidelines for behavior and tends to give in to demands of the child.
Uninvolved Parenting Style
Makes few demands, shows low responsiveness and little communication.
Erik Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development
Looks at development across the life span
in a social context in 8 sequential stages during which we are faced with a crisis to
Trust vs. Mistrust
1st stage of Erik Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development.
Period: First Year
Positive Resolution: Sense of security.
Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt
2nd stage of Erik Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development.
Period: Second Year
Positive Resolution: Sense of independence.
Initiative vs. Guilt
3rd stage of Erik Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development.
Period: 3-5 Years
Positive Resolution: Balance between spontaneity and restraint.
Industry vs. Inferiority
4th stage of Erik Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development.
Period: 6 Years to Puberty
Positive Resolution: Sense of self-confidence.
Identity vs. Role Confusion
5th stage of Erik Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development.
Positive Resolution: Unified sense of self.
Intimacy vs. Isolation
6th stage of Erik Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development.
Period: Young Adulthood
Positive Resolution: Form close personal relationships.
Generativity vs. Stagnation
7th stage of Erik Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development.
Period: Middle Adulthood
Positive Resolution: Promote well being of others.
Integrity vs. Despair
8th stage of Erik Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development.
Period: Late adulthood
Positive Resolution: Sense of satisfaction with life well lived.
The sociocultural dimension of being biologically male or female.
Sets of expectations that prescribe how males and females should act, think, feel.
Person's sense of being male or female.
Child's understanding that sex identity is stable over time.
Child's understanding that his/her sex won't change even if he/she acts like the opposite sex.
Mental set of what society considers appropriate behavior for each of the sexes.
Gender Role Stereotypes
Broad categories that reflect our impressions and beliefs about males and females.
The presence of desirable masculine and feminine characteristics in one individual.