AP Psychology Chapter 13: Treatment of Abnormal Behavior Vocabulary
Terms in this set (49)
Medical doctors (M.D.); can prescribe medication and perform surgery.
Have doctoral degrees (Ph.D. or Psy.D.); use different therapeutic approaches depending on training and diagnosis.
Have Ph.D., Ed.D., Psy.D., or M.A. in counseling; tend to deal with less severe mental health problems.
May or may not be psychiatrists, but follow the teaching of Freud and practice psychoanalysis or other psychodynamic therapies.
Clinical or Psychiatric Social Workers
Have masters degrees in social work (M.S.W.).
Movement begun in 1950s to remove patients who were not considered a
threat to themselves or the community from mental hospitals.
The systematic statistical method for
synthesizing the results of numerous research studies dealing with the same variables.
A psychoanalytic procedure in which the client is encouraged to say whatever is
on his/her mind without censoring possibly
embarrassing or socially unacceptable thoughts or ideas.
According to Freud, the remembered
story line of a dream.
Learning when no apparent rewards are present; it only becomes apparent when there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
A technique that involves an interaction
between the person (hypnotist) who suggests that certain feelings, thoughts, perceptions, or behaviors and the subject who experiences them.
Blocking of anxiety-provoking feelings
and experiences in the process of psychoanalysis.
In psychoanalaysis, the venting of
emotions both positive and negative by patients; treating their analyst as the symbolic representativeof someone important in their past.
In Freudian psychoanalysis, the release of
emotional tension after remembering or reliving an emotionally charged experience from the past; as a coping device for stress, the release of pent up emotions through exercise or other means.
Unconditional Positive Regard
Rogers's term for acceptance, value, and love from others independent of how we behave.
The realization of our true intellectual
and emotional potential (according to Maslow).
Rogerian term for the self we desire to be;
discrepancy with real self causes psychological problems.
According to Rogers, the positive and original organism we are before society imposes conditions of worth on us.
Rogers's term for hearing another
person with complete attention to what he/she says and means through acknowledging feelings, echoing, restating, and seeking clarification.
Developed by Perls, a humanistic
therapy emphasizing the unity of mind and body; teaches the client to "get in touch" with unconscious bodily sensations and emotions.
Treatment approach that uses
applications of learning principles to eliminate unwanted behaviors.
Behavior treatment for phobias in which the client is trained to relax to increasingly fearful stimuli.
A listing of frightening events in
increasing order of severity used in systematic desensitization treatment for phobias.
Behavior treatment for phobias; client is
repeatedly exposed to feared object for extended periods of time and without escape, until the anxiety diminishes.
Learning involving an unpleasant or harmful unconditioned stimulus or
reinforcer; also a form of behavior therapy (aversion therapy) in which the client is trained to associate physical or psychological discomfort with behaviors, thoughts, or situations the client wants
to stop or avoid.
Therapy in which the client selects a goal and as he/she gets closer to that goal
receives small rewards until finally reaching the intended goal; also a field that applies the behavioral approach scientifically to solve problems
(applied behavior analysis).
A program used in institutions in which a person's acceptable behavior is reinforced with tokens that can be exchanged for special privileges or goods.
Something seen as rewarding because it is associated with a primary reinforcer.
Social Skill Training
Cognitive behavioral therapy where the therapist can model the behavior for the
client and then place the client in a simulated situation for practice.
Process of watching and imitating a specific behavior; important in observational learning.
Positively reinforcing closer and closer
approximations of a desired behavior through operant conditioning.
A system for electronically recording,
amplifying, and giving back information regarding a subtle physiological state.
Cognitive therapy in which clients discuss their fears and are led to change their attitudes and beliefs about the situations
that frighten them.
Rational Emotive Therapy (RET)
Cognitive treatment developed by Ellis which is based on confronting irrational thoughts; change in irrational thinking will lead to a change in irrational behavior.
Beck's cognitive therapy which looks at what people think about their Self, their World, and their Future.
The use of psychotropic drugs to treat mental disorders.
Anti-anxiety drugs (tranquilizers) such as benzodiazepines including Librium, Valium, Xanax; and Buspirone.
Medicines which elevate mood states; three main categories include tricyclics
(such as Elavil), MAO inhibitors (such as
Nardil), and SSRI inhibitors (such as Prozac).
Psychoactive drugs that activate motivational centers and reduce activity in inhibitory centers of the central nervous system by increasing activity of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine neurotransmitter systems; include caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, and cocaine.
Antipsychotic drugs to reduce hallucinations, delusions, and jumbled thought processes; include Thorazine (chlorpromazine), Haldol, Clozaril.
Condition in which diminished effectiveness of drug necessitates larger dosages to produce desired effect.
Serious side effects from antipsychotic drugs including problems walking, drooling, and involuntary muscle spasms.
Electroconvulsive Shock Treatment (ECT)
Is used as a last resort to treat severely depressed patients; involves passing small amounts of electric current
through the brain to produce seizure activity and a change in affect.
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)
A treatment for depression involving
repeated pulses through a magnetic coil positioned above the right eyebrow of the patient that does not result in memory loss.
Any surgical technique in which neural pathways in the brain are cut in order to change behavior, including lobotomy.
A surgical procedure that destroys the tracts connecting the frontal lobes to
lower centers of the brain, once believed to be an effective treatment for schizophrenia.
A form of psychosocial treatment where a small group of patients meet regularly to talk, interact, and discuss problems with each other and the group leader (therapist).
Couples and Family Therapy
A type of psychotherapy designed to identify family or couples patterns that contribute to a behavior disorder or mental illness and help family members break those habits.
Nonprofessional organization formed by people with a common problem or situation, for the purpose of pooling resources, gathering information, and offering mutual support, services, or care.