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VET 226 WBC Morphology
Terms in this set (83)
production of WBCs in bone marrow
abnormal increased production of one type of WBC
WBC's are transported in the bloodstream to the site of infection by moving through the vessel wall, this is known as ___________
attraction to infection by inflammatory chemicals released by tissue and microorganisms
Microorganisms/antigens are coated with a plasma protein, opsonin, that makes it more susceptible to phagocytosis. This is called ________
allows cell to bring in large particles, liquids, entire cells into interior of cell
cell engulfs solid material, forms phagosome
cell engulfs liquid
This cell is involved in cleaning up debris, dead cells, and outside invaders
Phagocytosis works by what process?
oxygen of the bacteria/foreign invader produces hydrogen peroxide which then attracts myeloperoxidase of the macrophage
Where is myeloperoxidase found?
inside the lysozyme of the cell
Control of neutrophil count depends on what?
1. sudden drop in cells
2. rate of escape from peripheral blood
3. any increased release rate will cause entrance of additional stem cells to neutrophil production
List the 5 types of WBC's
Granulocytes all start out as ______ _______
The most commonly seen WBC is a ___________
The primary function of a neutrophil is __________
Neutrophils contain __________ ____________ that help to phagocytize small particles
Immature neutrophils have a ________ nucleus, while older cells have a __________ nucleus
The dark staining material in the nuclei of the neutrophils is called ________
Band neutrophils are seen with what clinical signs?
inflammation, infection, or neoplasia
Increased numbers of neutrophils indicates what?
infection or inflammation
Increased number of circulating neutrophils
Neutrophilia is most commonly caused by what? It is also seen with....
bacterial infection; inflammation, fear, exercise, stress, or certain drugs (prednisone)
Decreased number of circulating neutrophils
Neutropenia is caused by what?
- severe infection
- chemical toxicity
- genetic disorders
- decreased production in the bone marrow
- increased destruction
This inherited disorder results in hyposegmentation of neutrophils and eosinophils
Pseudo- Pelger- Huet anomaly
Hyposegmentation has been reported in what dog breeds?
foxhounds, basenjis, samoyeds, and mixed dog breeds
Hyposegmentation of neutrophils is normal in what type of dog?
Animals with hyposegmented neutrophils that are homozygous for the trait have __________ abnormalities and die shortly after birth
Hypersegmentation is caused by _________
aging of neutrophils
retained endoplasmic reticulum; small, round bluish colored bodies in the cytoplasm of neutrophils
Dohle bodies are caused by a decrease in __________
This may indicate toxicity, inflammation, and/or infection
Small, densely staining structure in the cell nuclei
These nuclei structures are normal in healthy female animals
The main function of eosinophils is _________
Eosinophils have ______ granules
(true/false) Eosinophils are only in the blood circulation for a few hours
Eosinophils inhibit local __________ and ___________ reactions because their granules contain anti-inflammatory substances
allergic and anaphylactic
_____________ phagocytize protozoa while ____________ phagocytize bacteria
Eosinophils are seen with what conditions?
allergies or parasites
(true/false) eosinophilia indicates normal levels
Dark blue cytoplasmic granules (water-soluble)
These WBC's circulate in very low numbers and are almost never seen
What are the differences between basophils and mast cells?
- basophils do not migrate from the blood
- mast cells have more granules that are water soluble
- Mast cells are round, non segmented nuclues
Basophils release ___________ factor that attracts eosinophils
What WBC is related to the immune system and releases histamine and heparin?
Basophilia is associated with what conditions?
allergic or hypersensitivity reactions, or heavy parasitic reactions
monocytes and lymphocytes are both ___________
What WBC is the largest?
The main function of a monocyte is what?
when monocytes enter tissues they become ___________
monocytes mostly reside in filter organs such as......
liver, spleen, lungs, and lymph nodes
monocytosis is associated with what conditions?
chronic inflammation, infection, corticosteroids, stress, or hemorrhage
What is the predominant circulating WBC in ruminants and pigs?
This WBC's function is mainly immunological activity and has no phagocytic ability
Lymphocytosis is seen with what conditions?
leukemia, chronic infection, epinephrine release (fear/excitement)
Lymphopenia is seen with what conditions?
decreased production, corticosteroids, immune deficiency dz, acute viral dz, loss of lymph tissue
These lymphocytes are created due to chronic antigenic stimulation, usually associated with viral illnesses, immunization reactions, radiation, hormones, or autoimmune dz
What type of WBC looks as if it is attached to surrounding RBC's
List the pathogen-related causes of reactive lymphocytes
- Epstein-Barr virus
- Treponema polldium (syphilis)
- Streptocococus agalactia
- Hepatitis C
Reactive lymphocytes have _________ granules
A ruptured leukocyte, usually produced during preparation of smear, occurs with blood that sits in the tube for a long time
Smudge cell (basket cell)
Platelets are also known as _________
What cells are responsible for platelet production?
Platelets are made of long filaments known as __________
What are platelet factors?
proteins found in and on the surface of platelets that adhere to damaged tissue and one another to give clots strength
List the functions of platelets
- maintenance of vascular integrity
- release endothelial growth factor
- plug formation (attach to vascular damage)
Inadequate numbers of platelets allow RBC's to move through the vascular wall and produce __________
What is the normal range of platelets?
6-15/oil immersion field
1 platelet per oil-immersion field is equal to how many platelets total?
What is the normal platelet count for a dog?
What is the normal platelet count for a cat?
Increased platelets are commonly seen with what conditions?
myeloproliferative disorders or megakaryocytic leukemia
Decreased platelets are seen with what conditions?
- B12, iron, or folic acid deficiency
- drug toxicity
- acute hemorrhage
- aplastic anemia
The birman cat granulation anomaly is associated with what WBC?
What shift is associated with an increased WBC count and decreased immature granulocytes?
regenerative left shift
What shift is associated with decreased WBC count and increased immature granulocytes?
degenerative left shift
What shift is associated with increased percentage of older cells?
At what level of thrombocytopenia do we have concern of clotting deficiencies?
Circulating neutrophils in avians are called what?
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