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IB SEHS SL Option B - Sports Psychology
Terms in this set (34)
B.1.1 Define the term personality (1).
"Those relatively stable and enduring aspects of individuals which distinguish them from other people, making them unique but at the same time permit a comparison between individuals."
B.1.2 Discuss Social Learning Theory and personality.
We have the capacity to learn through observation.
The personality components of Social Learning Theory are mainly cognitive: Knowing, being aware, thinking, learning and judging.
B.1.3 Discuss the interactionist approach to personality.
According to Kurt Lewin personalities are developed through a constant interaction between the persona and their environment.
Behavior is a Function of the Person and their Environment.
The individual cannot be understood if the person and their environment are held separate. Sometimes personality traits can predict behavior in some situations.
Trait Approach: Eysenck/Cattell
Interested in the measurement of traits.
Situational Approach: Bandura
Believes that personality is built from experiences in the social world and people learn from modeling.
Interactional Approach: Hollander
Believes we base behavior on inherent traits, that we then adapt to the world.
Interactionist Approach: Lewin
Behavior is a function of personality and environment.
Operant Conditioning: Skinner
People learn from consequences.
B.1.4 Outline the issues associated with the measurement of personality.
Biases: Self-reported data may include error due to denial and wanting to be evaluated in a favorable light.
Nature of the assessment in relation to the sport: Is it situation specific and is it individually oriented?
Data collection is more difficult because it is qualitative. Interviews, questionnaires and observing behavior are more difficult to analyze.
Ethical issues: Informed consent, confidentiality, use of results and predicting personality can also be problematic.
Sport-specific measures of personality predict behavior better in sports settings than general personality tests.
Personality can be influenced by many factors including the environment and the other people involved.
B.1.5 Evaluate issues in personality research and sports performance.
General personality factors and the instruments which are used to measure them, are just not sensitive to the more subtle differences that determine sport performance.
B.2.1 Define the term motivation (1).
Internal process that activates, guides, and maintains behavior over time.
B.2.2 Outline the types of motivation.
Intrinsic: perform a sports competition for its own sake;
for the itself and the pleasure derived from participation;
for the pleasure and satisfaction felt when mastering the skills;
characterizes the motivation of many top athletes;
for example driven by personal goals rather than financial rewards;
intrinsically motivated participants tend to experience less pressure.
Extrinsic: applies whenever a person is involved in a task largely as a result of external factors;
extrinsic factors that motivate participants in sports competition include money, trophies, social approval from others, etc;
associated with increased anxiety during competition;
can have a controlling affect on athlete;
can have a positive or negative impact on intrinsic motivation;
burnout is often associated with extrinsic motivation.
B.2.3 Discuss the issues associated with the use of intrinsic and extrinsic motivators (3).
Events which are used to control behavior decrease feelings of autonomy and intrinsic motivation.
External motivation comes in the form of incentives, consequences and rewards. If a person receives negative feedback, then competency and internal motivation decrease.
When a task is being performed because of intrinsic motivation, extrinsic rewards can lower the person's motivation.
B.2.4 Explain Atkinson's Theory and factors that affect it (5).
"To explain how the motive to achieve and the motive to avoid failure influence behavior in a situation where performance is evaluated against some standard of excellence."
1. Personality Factors: Motive to achieve success or avoid failures.
2. Situational Factors: Probability of success or incentive.
3. Result Tendencies: Seek out success or avoid failure.
4. Emotions: Pride of success or shame of failure.
5. Achievement Behaviors: Seek out achievement situations, look for challenges, enhanced performance OR avoid achievement situations, avoid challenges.
Outline characteristics of high and low achievers (4).
High achiever: Select challenging tasks; display a high level of effort; continue to try hard in difficult situations; focus on the pride of success.
Low achiever: Avoid challenging activities; exert less effort when they take part; exert less persistence when they take part; focus on the shame of failure.
B.2.5 Outline Goal Orientation Theory (2).
Proposes that in achievement settings a person's main concern is to demonstrate high ability and avoid demonstrating low ability.
Task-oriented: Focus on improving relative to their previous performance; perceived ability not based on comparison with others; intrinsically motivated.
Ego-oriented: Focus on demonstrating superior ability compared to others; goal orientations are relatively stable but can change with time; extrinsically motivated.
B.2.6 Describe Attribution Theory and its' application to sport and exercise (5).
Locus of causality: Internal is when you believe the outcome is a response of your ability or effort. External is when you believe the outcome is a response of task difficulty or luck.
Locus of stability: Is whether you believe the outcome is with stable (same outcome will occur every time) or unstable (outcome will vary).
Locus of controllability: Is whether you believe the outcome is controllable (by yourself) or uncontrollable (not by yourself).
B.3.1 Define the term arousal (1).
The immediate response to a stressor and is governed by the sympathetic nervous system; corresponds to the alarm reaction.
B.3.2 Describe the theoretical approaches to arousal (4).
Drive reduction theory: Deviations from homeostasis create physiological needs. These needs result in a drive to return the body back to homeostasis.
Inverted U Approach: Peak performance is achieved when people experience a moderate level of pressure. Too little or too much, and performance declines.
Catastrophe Model: Suggests that when cognitive anxiety was high, then continued increases in physiological arousal would result in a catastrophic decline in performance.
B.3.3 Draw and label a graphical representation of the arousal performance relationship.
Tied to NC B.3.2
B.3.4 Discuss the emotions that may influence performance (2).
Specific emotions that have a discrete effect on performance (negative mood = more likely to remember negative memories of past failures and then reduce feelings of confidence to perform; positive mood = more likely to recall positive memories which result in positive outcomes by increasing confidence).
B.3.5 Define the term anxiety (1).
A negative emotion of apprehension and tension (stress), which includes irrational thoughts, fear of failure, self-doubt and worry.
B.3.6 Distinguish between cognitive and somatic anxiety.
Cognitive anxiety is a chain of thoughts and images negatively affect-laden and relatively uncontrollable.
Somatic anxiety is closely linked to physiological arousal and is best explained in terms of an awareness and interpretation of physiological changes that provide a signal to the individual that they were anxious. (Trembling, nausea)
B.3.7 Distinguish between trait and state anxiety.
Trait anxiety: refers to a general level of stress that is a characteristic of an individual; a trait related to personality. People with a high trait anxiety experience more intense degrees of state anxiety. Trait anxiety describes a personality trait versus a temporary feeling.
State anxiety: describes the experience of unpleasant feeling when confronted with specific situations, demands or a particular event.
B.3.8 Evaluate how anxiety is measured Sport Competition Anxiety Test (SCAT) (4).
Martin's original CSAI just measured state anxiety, but the CSAI-2 measures different sorts of state anxiety (somatic and cognitive) as well as self-confidence.
Procedure is to test athletes: 48 hours (baseline), 24 hours, 2 hours and 5 minutes prior to competition.
Martins found that cognitive anxiety stayed constant or dropped steadily on prior to the event, rising suddenly after warm-up.
Somatic anxiety rose steadily prior to competition and then peaked dramatically in the minutes before event.
B.3.9 Describe the stress process in sport (8).
I. Causes of stress (environmental demand; physical/psychological demand)
II. Stress response (person's reaction; perception of that demand, think cognitive) If a person perceives an imbalance between what is being asked and what they can do, the stress continues. Trait anxious people view situations as more threatening.
III. Stress experience (psychological interpretation leads to physiological response, think somatic) If an imbalance between demands and response capability is perceived, = possible changes in concentration and increased muscle tension.
IV. Actual behavior (outcome) performance may decline due to the problems of state anxiety or improve because of increased intensity.
Task vs. Ego Oriented Athlete and their coping strategies (4).
Task-oriented: problem solving strategies
Ego-oriented: emotion focused coping strategies
B.4.1 Discuss psychological skills training (PST).
Systematic and consistent practice of mental or psychological skills.
PST program consists of: education, acquisition and practice.
Psychological skills are steps taken by the athlete to improve their psychological state (goal setting, imagery, self-talk, relaxation)..
B.4.2 Outline goal setting.
1. Set specific goals
2. Set moderately difficult yet realistic goals
3. Set short and long term goals
4. Set a combination of outcome, performance and process goals
5. Always have training and competition goals
6. Record your goals and make sure you get feedback on your progress.
7. Always identify strategies to help you be successful.
8. Foster individual commitment to your goals and ensure you have adequate support.
B.4.3 Evaluate mental imagery.
Associated with concentration enhancement, self-confidence, skill acquisition, emotional control, practice strategy and coping with pain and injury.
Imagery may have a positive effect on self-belief and intrinsic motivation.
Lang's bio informational theory suggests that the same neural pathways in the brain used in performance skills are activated during the use of mental imagery.
Using a sporting example, distinguish between external and internal imagery.
Internal imagery: visualizing participation in the event
External imagery: like watching a video
Imagery use should be sport specific.
Concentration and enhancement
Coping with pain and injury
B.4.4 Outline relaxation techniques.
Progressive Muscle Relaxation
PMR involves the individual to go through the body, tensing and relaxing each of the muscle groups. Enhances greater self-awareness of degrees of body tension and the impact on performance.
Breathing in on the count of 4 and out on the count of 8. The counting provides a focus for the performer and encourages breathing control. When used in combination with relaxation and mental imagery, breathing techniques can assist in reaching a hypnotic state.
The use of instruments to measure physiological systems (HR, muscle activation, brain waves, skin temperature) and then feed that information back to the athlete.
B.4.5 Outline self-talk techniques.
1. Use of logs (record thoughts and identify whether they are positive, negative or neutral).
2. Thought stopping (negative thoughts are stopped by the command stop or a visual image like no entry).
3. Cognitive reconstructing (negative thoughts are reconstructed to positive ones).
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